CODE_H% = P% LOAD_H% = LOAD% + P% - CODE%ELITE H FILE.MVEIT LDA INWK+31 \ If bits 5 or 7 of ship byte #31 are set, jump to MV30 AND #%10100000 \ as the ship is either exploding or has been killed, so BNE MV30 \ we don't need to tidy its orientation vectors or apply \ tactics LDA MCNT \ Fetch the main loop counter EOR XSAV \ Fetch the slot number of the ship we are moving, EOR AND #15 \ with the loop counter and apply mod 15 to the result. BNE MV3 \ The result will be zero when "counter mod 15" matches \ the slot number, so this makes sure we call TIDY 12 \ times every 16 main loop iterations, like this: \ \ Iteration 0, tidy the ship in slot 0 \ Iteration 1, tidy the ship in slot 1 \ Iteration 2, tidy the ship in slot 2 \ ... \ Iteration 11, tidy the ship in slot 11 \ Iteration 12, do nothing \ Iteration 13, do nothing \ Iteration 14, do nothing \ Iteration 15, do nothing \ Iteration 16, tidy the ship in slot 0 \ ... \ \ and so on JSR TIDY \ Call TIDY to tidy up the orientation vectors, to \ prevent the ship from getting elongated and out of \ shape due to the imprecise nature of trigonometry \ in assembly languageName: MVEIT (Part 1 of 9) [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Moving Summary: Move current ship: Tidy the orientation vectors Deep dive: Program flow of the ship-moving routine Scheduling tasks with the main loop counterContext: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: This subroutine is called as follows: * BRIEF calls MVEIT * ESCAPE calls MVEIT * Main flight loop (Part 6 of 16) calls MVEIT * PAS1 calls MVEIT * TITLE calls MVEIT

This routine has multiple stages. This stage does the following: * Tidy the orientation vectors for one of the ship slots Arguments: INWK The current ship/planet/sun's data block XSAV The slot number of the current ship/planet/sun TYPE The type of the current ship/planet/sun.MV3 LDX TYPE \ If the type of the ship we are moving is positive, BPL P%+5 \ i.e. it is not a planet (types 128 and 130) or sun \ (type 129), then skip the following instruction JMP MV40 \ This item is the planet or sun, so jump to MV40 to \ move it, which ends by jumping back into this routine \ at MV45 (after all the rotation, tactics and scanner \ code, which we don't need to apply to planets or suns) LDA INWK+32 \ Fetch the ship's byte #32 (AI flag) into A BPL MV30 \ If bit 7 of the AI flag is clear, then if this is a \ ship or missile it is dumb and has no AI, and if this \ is the space station it is not hostile, so in both \ cases skip the following as it has no tactics CPX #MSL \ If the ship is a missile, skip straight to MV26 to BEQ MV26 \ call the TACTICS routine, as we do this every \ iteration of the main loop for missiles only LDA MCNT \ Fetch the main loop counter EOR XSAV \ Fetch the slot number of the ship we are moving, EOR AND #7 \ with the loop counter and apply mod 8 to the result. BNE MV30 \ The result will be zero when "counter mod 8" matches \ the slot number mod 8, so this makes sure we call \ TACTICS 12 times every 8 main loop iterations, like \ this: \ \ Iteration 0, apply tactics to slots 0 and 8 \ Iteration 1, apply tactics to slots 1 and 9 \ Iteration 2, apply tactics to slots 2 and 10 \ Iteration 3, apply tactics to slots 3 and 11 \ Iteration 4, apply tactics to slot 4 \ Iteration 5, apply tactics to slot 5 \ Iteration 6, apply tactics to slot 6 \ Iteration 7, apply tactics to slot 7 \ Iteration 8, apply tactics to slots 0 and 8 \ ... \ \ and so on .MV26 JSR TACTICS \ Call TACTICS to apply AI tactics to this ship .MV30 JSR SCAN \ Draw the ship on the scanner, which has the effect of \ removing it, as it's already at this point and hasn't \ yet movedName: MVEIT (Part 2 of 9) [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Moving Summary: Move current ship: Call tactics routine, remove ship from scanner Deep dive: Scheduling tasks with the main loop counterContext: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: No direct references to this subroutine in this source file

This routine has multiple stages. This stage does the following: * Apply tactics to ships with AI enabled (by calling the TACTICS routine) * Remove the ship from the scanner, so we can move itLDA INWK+27 \ Set Q = the ship's speed byte #27 * 4 ASL A ASL A STA Q LDA INWK+10 \ Set A = |nosev_x_hi| AND #%01111111 JSR FMLTU \ Set R = A * Q / 256 STA R \ = |nosev_x_hi| * speed / 64 LDA INWK+10 \ If nosev_x_hi is positive, then: LDX #0 \ JSR MVT1-2 \ (x_sign x_hi x_lo) = (x_sign x_hi x_lo) + R \ \ If nosev_x_hi is negative, then: \ \ (x_sign x_hi x_lo) = (x_sign x_hi x_lo) - R \ \ So in effect, this does: \ \ (x_sign x_hi x_lo) += nosev_x_hi * speed / 64 LDA INWK+12 \ Set A = |nosev_y_hi| AND #%01111111 JSR FMLTU \ Set R = A * Q / 256 STA R \ = |nosev_y_hi| * speed / 64 LDA INWK+12 \ If nosev_y_hi is positive, then: LDX #3 \ JSR MVT1-2 \ (y_sign y_hi y_lo) = (y_sign y_hi y_lo) + R \ \ If nosev_y_hi is negative, then: \ \ (y_sign y_hi y_lo) = (y_sign y_hi y_lo) - R \ \ So in effect, this does: \ \ (y_sign y_hi y_lo) += nosev_y_hi * speed / 64 LDA INWK+14 \ Set A = |nosev_z_hi| AND #%01111111 JSR FMLTU \ Set R = A * Q / 256 STA R \ = |nosev_z_hi| * speed / 64 LDA INWK+14 \ If nosev_y_hi is positive, then: LDX #6 \ JSR MVT1-2 \ (z_sign z_hi z_lo) = (z_sign z_hi z_lo) + R \ \ If nosev_z_hi is negative, then: \ \ (z_sign z_hi z_lo) = (z_sign z_hi z_lo) - R \ \ So in effect, this does: \ \ (z_sign z_hi z_lo) += nosev_z_hi * speed / 64Name: MVEIT (Part 3 of 9) [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Moving Summary: Move current ship: Move ship forward according to its speedContext: See this subroutine on its own page References: No direct references to this subroutine in this source file

This routine has multiple stages. This stage does the following: * Move the ship forward (along the vector pointing in the direction of travel) according to its speed: (x, y, z) += nosev_hi * speed / 64LDA INWK+27 \ Set A = the ship's speed in byte #24 + the ship's CLC \ acceleration in byte #28 ADC INWK+28 BPL P%+4 \ If the result is positive, skip the following \ instruction LDA #0 \ Set A to 0 to stop the speed from going negative LDY #15 \ Fetch byte #15 from the ship's blueprint, which \ contains the ship's maximum speed CMP (XX0),Y \ If A < the ship's maximum speed, skip the following BCC P%+4 \ instruction LDA (XX0),Y \ Set A to the ship's maximum speed STA INWK+27 \ We have now calculated the new ship's speed after \ accelerating and keeping the speed within the ship's \ limits, so store the updated speed in byte #27 LDA #0 \ We have added the ship's acceleration, so we now set STA INWK+28 \ it back to 0 in byte #28, as it's a one-off changeName: MVEIT (Part 4 of 9) [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Moving Summary: Move current ship: Apply acceleration to ship's speed as a one-offContext: See this subroutine on its own page References: No direct references to this subroutine in this source file

This routine has multiple stages. This stage does the following: * Apply acceleration to the ship's speed (if acceleration is non-zero), and then zero the acceleration as it's a one-off changeLDX ALP1 \ Fetch the magnitude of the current roll into X, so \ if the roll angle is alpha, X contains |alpha| LDA INWK \ Set P = ~x_lo (i.e. with all its bits flipped) so that EOR #%11111111 \ we can pass x_lo to MLTU2 below) STA P LDA INWK+1 \ Set A = x_hi JSR MLTU2-2 \ Set (A P+1 P) = (A ~P) * X \ = (x_hi x_lo) * alpha STA P+2 \ Store the high byte of the result in P+2, so we now \ have: \ \ P(2 1 0) = (x_hi x_lo) * alpha LDA ALP2+1 \ Fetch the flipped sign of the current roll angle alpha EOR INWK+2 \ from ALP2+1 and EOR with byte #2 (x_sign), so if the \ flipped roll angle and x_sign have the same sign, A \ will be positive, else it will be negative. So A will \ contain the sign bit of x_sign * flipped alpha sign, \ which is the opposite to the sign of the above result, \ so we now have: \ \ (A P+2 P+1) = - (x_sign x_hi x_lo) * alpha / 256 LDX #3 \ Set (A P+2 P+1) = (y_sign y_hi y_lo) + (A P+2 P+1) JSR MVT6 \ = y - x * alpha / 256 STA K2+3 \ Set K2(3) = A = the sign of the result LDA P+1 \ Set K2(1) = P+1, the low byte of the result STA K2+1 EOR #%11111111 \ Set P = ~K2+1 (i.e. with all its bits flipped) so STA P \ that we can pass K2+1 to MLTU2 below) LDA P+2 \ Set K2(2) = A = P+2 STA K2+2 \ So we now have result 1 above: \ \ K2(3 2 1) = (A P+2 P+1) \ = y - x * alpha / 256 LDX BET1 \ Fetch the magnitude of the current pitch into X, so \ if the pitch angle is beta, X contains |beta| JSR MLTU2-2 \ Set (A P+1 P) = (A ~P) * X \ = K2(2 1) * beta STA P+2 \ Store the high byte of the result in P+2, so we now \ have: \ \ P(2 1 0) = K2(2 1) * beta LDA K2+3 \ Fetch the sign of the above result in K(3 2 1) from EOR BET2 \ K2+3 and EOR with BET2, the sign of the current pitch \ rate, so if the pitch and K(3 2 1) have the same sign, \ A will be positive, else it will be negative. So A \ will contain the sign bit of K(3 2 1) * beta, which is \ the same as the sign of the above result, so we now \ have: \ \ (A P+2 P+1) = K2(3 2 1) * beta / 256 LDX #6 \ Set (A P+2 P+1) = (z_sign z_hi z_lo) + (A P+2 P+1) JSR MVT6 \ = z + K2 * beta / 256 STA INWK+8 \ Set z_sign = A = the sign of the result LDA P+1 \ Set z_lo = P+1, the low byte of the result STA INWK+6 EOR #%11111111 \ Set P = ~z_lo (i.e. with all its bits flipped) so that STA P \ we can pass z_lo to MLTU2 below) LDA P+2 \ Set z_hi = P+2 STA INWK+7 \ So we now have result 2 above: \ \ (z_sign z_hi z_lo) = (A P+2 P+1) \ = z + K2 * beta / 256 JSR MLTU2 \ MLTU2 doesn't change Q, and Q was set to beta in \ the previous call to MLTU2, so this call does: \ \ (A P+1 P) = (A ~P) * Q \ = (z_hi z_lo) * beta STA P+2 \ Set P+2 = A = the high byte of the result, so we \ now have: \ \ P(2 1 0) = (z_hi z_lo) * beta LDA K2+3 \ Set y_sign = K2+3 STA INWK+5 EOR BET2 \ EOR y_sign with BET2, the sign of the current pitch EOR INWK+8 \ rate, and z_sign. If the result is positive jump to BPL MV43 \ MV43, otherwise this means beta * z and y have \ different signs, i.e. P(2 1) and K2(3 2 1) have \ different signs, so we need to add them in order to \ calculate K2(2 1) - P(2 1) LDA P+1 \ Set (y_hi y_lo) = K2(2 1) + P(2 1) ADC K2+1 STA INWK+3 LDA P+2 ADC K2+2 STA INWK+4 JMP MV44 \ Jump to MV44 to continue the calculation .MV43 LDA K2+1 \ Reversing the logic above, we need to subtract P(2 1) SBC P+1 \ and K2(3 2 1) to calculate K2(2 1) - P(2 1), so this STA INWK+3 \ sets (y_hi y_lo) = K2(2 1) - P(2 1) LDA K2+2 SBC P+2 STA INWK+4 BCS MV44 \ If the above subtraction did not underflow, then \ jump to MV44, otherwise we need to negate the result LDA #1 \ Negate (y_sign y_hi y_lo) using two's complement, SBC INWK+3 \ first doing the low bytes: STA INWK+3 \ \ y_lo = 1 - y_lo LDA #0 \ Then the high bytes: SBC INWK+4 \ STA INWK+4 \ y_hi = 0 - y_hi LDA INWK+5 \ And finally flip the sign in y_sign EOR #%10000000 STA INWK+5 .MV44 \ So we now have result 3 above: \ \ (y_sign y_hi y_lo) = K2(2 1) - P(2 1) \ = K2 - beta * z LDX ALP1 \ Fetch the magnitude of the current roll into X, so \ if the roll angle is alpha, X contains |alpha| LDA INWK+3 \ Set P = ~y_lo (i.e. with all its bits flipped) so that EOR #&FF \ we can pass y_lo to MLTU2 below) STA P LDA INWK+4 \ Set A = y_hi JSR MLTU2-2 \ Set (A P+1 P) = (A ~P) * X \ = (y_hi y_lo) * alpha STA P+2 \ Store the high byte of the result in P+2, so we now \ have: \ \ P(2 1 0) = (y_hi y_lo) * alpha LDA ALP2 \ Fetch the correct sign of the current roll angle alpha EOR INWK+5 \ from ALP2 and EOR with byte #5 (y_sign), so if the \ correct roll angle and y_sign have the same sign, A \ will be positive, else it will be negative. So A will \ contain the sign bit of x_sign * correct alpha sign, \ which is the same as the sign of the above result, \ so we now have: \ \ (A P+2 P+1) = (y_sign y_hi y_lo) * alpha / 256 LDX #0 \ Set (A P+2 P+1) = (x_sign x_hi x_lo) + (A P+2 P+1) JSR MVT6 \ = x + y * alpha / 256 STA INWK+2 \ Set x_sign = A = the sign of the result LDA P+2 \ Set x_hi = P+2, the high byte of the result STA INWK+1 LDA P+1 \ Set x_lo = P+1, the low byte of the result STA INWK \ So we now have result 4 above: \ \ x = x + alpha * y \ \ and the rotation of (x, y, z) is doneName: MVEIT (Part 5 of 9) [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Moving Summary: Move current ship: Rotate ship's location by our pitch and roll Deep dive: Rotating the universeContext: See this subroutine on its own page References: No direct references to this subroutine in this source file

This routine has multiple stages. This stage does the following: * Rotate the ship's location in space by the amount of pitch and roll of our ship. See below for a deeper explanation of this routine.MV45 LDA DELTA \ Set R to our speed in DELTA STA R LDA #%10000000 \ Set A to zeroes but with bit 7 set, so that (A R) is \ a 16-bit number containing -R, or -speed LDX #6 \ Set X to the z-axis so the call to MVT1 does this: JSR MVT1 \ \ (z_sign z_hi z_lo) = (z_sign z_hi z_lo) + (A R) \ = (z_sign z_hi z_lo) - speed LDA TYPE \ If the ship type is not the sun (129) then skip the AND #%10000001 \ next instruction, otherwise return from the subroutine CMP #129 \ as we don't need to rotate the sun around its origin. BNE P%+3 \ Having both the AND and the CMP is a little odd, as \ the sun is the only ship type with bits 0 and 7 set, \ so the AND has no effect and could be removed RTS \ Return from the subroutine, as the ship we are moving \ is the sun and doesn't need any of the followingName: MVEIT (Part 6 of 9) [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Moving Summary: Move current ship: Move the ship in space according to our speedContext: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: This subroutine is called as follows: * MV40 calls entry point MV45

This routine has multiple stages. This stage does the following: * Move the ship in space according to our speed (we already moved it according to its own speed in part 3). We do this by subtracting our speed (i.e. the distance we travel in this iteration of the loop) from the other ship's z-coordinate. We subtract because they appear to be "moving" in the opposite direction to us, and the whole MVEIT routine is about moving the other ships rather than us (even though we are the one doing the moving). Other entry points: MV45 Rejoin the MVEIT routine after the rotation, tactics and scanner codeLDY #9 \ Apply our pitch and roll rotations to the current JSR MVS4 \ ship's nosev vector LDY #15 \ Apply our pitch and roll rotations to the current JSR MVS4 \ ship's roofv vector LDY #21 \ Apply our pitch and roll rotations to the current JSR MVS4 \ ship's sidev vectorName: MVEIT (Part 7 of 9) [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Moving Summary: Move current ship: Rotate ship's orientation vectors by pitch/roll Deep dive: Orientation vectors Pitching and rolling

This routine has multiple stages. This stage does the following: * Rotate the ship's orientation vectors according to our pitch and roll As with the previous step, this is all about moving the other ships rather than us (even though we are the one doing the moving). So we rotate the current ship's orientation vectors (which defines its orientation in space), by the angles we are "moving" the rest of the sky through (alpha and beta, our roll and pitch), so the ship appears to us to be stationary while we rotate.LDA INWK+30 \ Fetch the ship's pitch counter and extract the sign AND #%10000000 \ into RAT2 STA RAT2 LDA INWK+30 \ Fetch the ship's pitch counter and extract the value AND #%01111111 \ without the sign bit into A BEQ MV8 \ If the pitch counter is 0, then jump to MV8 to skip \ the following, as the ship is not pitching CMP #%01111111 \ If bits 0-6 are set in the pitch counter (i.e. the \ ship's pitch is not damping down), then the C flag \ will be set by this instruction SBC #0 \ Set A = A - 0 - (1 - C), so if we are damping then we \ reduce A by 1, otherwise it is unchanged ORA RAT2 \ Change bit 7 of A to the sign we saved in RAT2, so \ the updated pitch counter in A retains its sign STA INWK+30 \ Store the updated pitch counter in byte #30 LDX #15 \ Rotate (roofv_x, nosev_x) by a small angle (pitch) LDY #9 JSR MVS5 LDX #17 \ Rotate (roofv_y, nosev_y) by a small angle (pitch) LDY #11 JSR MVS5 LDX #19 \ Rotate (roofv_z, nosev_z) by a small angle (pitch) LDY #13 JSR MVS5 .MV8 LDA INWK+29 \ Fetch the ship's roll counter and extract the sign AND #%10000000 \ into RAT2 STA RAT2 LDA INWK+29 \ Fetch the ship's roll counter and extract the value AND #%01111111 \ without the sign bit into A BEQ MV5 \ If the roll counter is 0, then jump to MV5 to skip the \ following, as the ship is not rolling CMP #%01111111 \ If bits 0-6 are set in the roll counter (i.e. the \ ship's roll is not damping down), then the C flag \ will be set by this instruction SBC #0 \ Set A = A - 0 - (1 - C), so if we are damping then we \ reduce A by 1, otherwise it is unchanged ORA RAT2 \ Change bit 7 of A to the sign we saved in RAT2, so \ the updated roll counter in A retains its sign STA INWK+29 \ Store the updated pitch counter in byte #29 LDX #15 \ Rotate (roofv_x, sidev_x) by a small angle (roll) LDY #21 JSR MVS5 LDX #17 \ Rotate (roofv_y, sidev_y) by a small angle (roll) LDY #23 JSR MVS5 LDX #19 \ Rotate (roofv_z, sidev_z) by a small angle (roll) LDY #25 JSR MVS5Name: MVEIT (Part 8 of 9) [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Moving Summary: Move current ship: Rotate ship about itself by its own pitch/roll Deep dive: Orientation vectors Pitching and rolling by a fixed angle

This routine has multiple stages. This stage does the following: * If the ship we are processing is rolling or pitching itself, rotate it and apply damping if required.MV5 LDA INWK+31 \ Fetch the ship's exploding/killed state from byte #31 AND #%10100000 \ If we are exploding or removing this ship then jump to BNE MVD1 \ MVD1 to remove it from the scanner permanently LDA INWK+31 \ Set bit 4 to keep the ship visible on the scanner ORA #%00010000 STA INWK+31 JMP SCAN \ Display the ship on the scanner, returning from the \ subroutine using a tail call .MVD1 LDA INWK+31 \ Clear bit 4 to hide the ship on the scanner AND #%11101111 STA INWK+31 RTS \ Return from the subroutineName: MVEIT (Part 9 of 9) [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Moving Summary: Move current ship: Redraw on scanner, if it hasn't been destroyedContext: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: No direct references to this subroutine in this source file

This routine has multiple stages. This stage does the following: * If the ship is exploding or being removed, hide it on the scanner * Otherwise redraw the ship on the scanner, now that it's been movedAND #%10000000 \ Clear bits 0-6 of A .MVT1 ASL A \ Set the C flag to the sign bit of the delta, leaving \ delta_hi << 1 in A STA S \ Set S = delta_hi << 1 \ \ This also clears bit 0 of S LDA #0 \ Set T = just the sign bit of delta (in bit 7) ROR A STA T LSR S \ Set S = delta_hi >> 1 \ = |delta_hi| \ \ This also clear the C flag, as we know that bit 0 of \ S was clear before the LSR EOR INWK+2,X \ If T EOR x_sign has bit 7 set, then x_sign and delta BMI MV10 \ have different signs, so jump to MV10 \ At this point, we know x_sign and delta have the same \ sign, that sign is in T, and S contains |delta_hi|, \ so now we want to do: \ \ (x_sign x_hi x_lo) = (x_sign x_hi x_lo) + (S R) \ \ and then set the sign of the result to the same sign \ as x_sign and delta LDA R \ First we add the low bytes, so: ADC INWK,X \ STA INWK,X \ x_lo = x_lo + R LDA S \ Then we add the high bytes: ADC INWK+1,X \ STA INWK+1,X \ x_hi = x_hi + S LDA INWK+2,X \ And finally we add any carry into x_sign, and if the ADC #0 \ sign of x_sign and delta in T is negative, make sure ORA T \ the result is negative (by OR'ing with T) STA INWK+2,X RTS \ Return from the subroutine .MV10 \ If we get here, we know x_sign and delta have \ different signs, with delta's sign in T, and \ |delta_hi| in S, so now we want to do: \ \ (x_sign x_hi x_lo) = (x_sign x_hi x_lo) - (S R) \ \ and then set the sign of the result according to \ the signs of x_sign and delta LDA INWK,X \ First we subtract the low bytes, so: SEC \ SBC R \ x_lo = x_lo - R STA INWK,X LDA INWK+1,X \ Then we subtract the high bytes: SBC S \ STA INWK+1,X \ x_hi = x_hi - S LDA INWK+2,X \ And finally we subtract any borrow from bits 0-6 of AND #%01111111 \ x_sign, and give the result the opposite sign bit to T SBC #0 \ (i.e. give it the sign of the original x_sign) ORA #%10000000 EOR T STA INWK+2,X BCS MV11 \ If the C flag is set by the above SBC, then our sum \ above didn't underflow and is correct - to put it \ another way, (x_sign x_hi x_lo) >= (S R) so the result \ should indeed have the same sign as x_sign, so jump to \ MV11 to return from the subroutine \ Otherwise our subtraction underflowed because \ (x_sign x_hi x_lo) < (S R), so we now need to flip the \ subtraction around by using two's complement to this: \ \ (S R) - (x_sign x_hi x_lo) \ \ and then we need to give the result the same sign as \ (S R), the delta, as that's the dominant figure in the \ sum LDA #1 \ First we subtract the low bytes, so: SBC INWK,X \ STA INWK,X \ x_lo = 1 - x_lo LDA #0 \ Then we subtract the high bytes: SBC INWK+1,X \ STA INWK+1,X \ x_hi = 0 - x_hi LDA #0 \ And then we subtract the sign bytes: SBC INWK+2,X \ \ x_sign = 0 - x_sign AND #%01111111 \ Finally, we set the sign bit to the sign in T, the ORA T \ sign of the original delta, as the delta is the STA INWK+2,X \ dominant figure in the sum .MV11 RTS \ Return from the subroutineName: MVT1 [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Moving Summary: Calculate (x_sign x_hi x_lo) = (x_sign x_hi x_lo) + (A R)Context: See this subroutine on its own page References: This subroutine is called as follows: * MVEIT (Part 6 of 9) calls MVT1 * SFS2 calls MVT1 * MVEIT (Part 3 of 9) calls entry point MVT1-2

Add the signed delta (A R) to a ship's coordinate, along the axis given in X. Mathematically speaking, this routine translates the ship along a single axis by a signed delta. Taking the example of X = 0, the x-axis, it does the following: (x_sign x_hi x_lo) = (x_sign x_hi x_lo) + (A R) (In practice, MVT1 is only ever called directly with A = 0 or 128, otherwise it is always called via MVT-2, which clears A apart from the sign bit. The routine is written to cope with a non-zero delta_hi, so it supports a full 16-bit delta, but it appears that delta_hi is only ever used to hold the sign of the delta.) The comments below assume we are adding delta to the x-axis, though the axis is determined by the value of X. Arguments: (A R) The signed delta, so A = delta_hi and R = delta_lo X Determines which coordinate axis of INWK to change: * X = 0 adds the delta to (x_lo, x_hi, x_sign) * X = 3 adds the delta to (y_lo, y_hi, y_sign) * X = 6 adds the delta to (z_lo, z_hi, z_sign) Other entry points: MVT1-2 Clear bits 0-6 of A before entering MVT1.MVS4 LDA ALPHA \ Set Q = alpha (the roll angle to rotate through) STA Q LDX INWK+2,Y \ Set (S R) = nosev_y STX R LDX INWK+3,Y STX S LDX INWK,Y \ These instructions have no effect as MAD overwrites STX P \ X and P when called, but they set X = P = nosev_x_lo LDA INWK+1,Y \ Set A = -nosev_x_hi EOR #%10000000 JSR MAD \ Set (A X) = Q * A + (S R) STA INWK+3,Y \ = alpha * -nosev_x_hi + nosev_y STX INWK+2,Y \ \ and store (A X) in nosev_y, so this does: \ \ nosev_y = nosev_y - alpha * nosev_x_hi STX P \ This instruction has no effect as MAD overwrites P, \ but it sets P = nosev_y_lo LDX INWK,Y \ Set (S R) = nosev_x STX R LDX INWK+1,Y STX S LDA INWK+3,Y \ Set A = nosev_y_hi JSR MAD \ Set (A X) = Q * A + (S R) STA INWK+1,Y \ = alpha * nosev_y_hi + nosev_x STX INWK,Y \ \ and store (A X) in nosev_x, so this does: \ \ nosev_x = nosev_x + alpha * nosev_y_hi STX P \ This instruction has no effect as MAD overwrites P, \ but it sets P = nosev_x_lo LDA BETA \ Set Q = beta (the pitch angle to rotate through) STA Q LDX INWK+2,Y \ Set (S R) = nosev_y STX R LDX INWK+3,Y STX S LDX INWK+4,Y STX P \ This instruction has no effect as MAD overwrites P, \ but it sets P = nosev_y LDA INWK+5,Y \ Set A = -nosev_z_hi EOR #%10000000 JSR MAD \ Set (A X) = Q * A + (S R) STA INWK+3,Y \ = beta * -nosev_z_hi + nosev_y STX INWK+2,Y \ \ and store (A X) in nosev_y, so this does: \ \ nosev_y = nosev_y - beta * nosev_z_hi STX P \ This instruction has no effect as MAD overwrites P, \ but it sets P = nosev_y_lo LDX INWK+4,Y \ Set (S R) = nosev_z STX R LDX INWK+5,Y STX S LDA INWK+3,Y \ Set A = nosev_y_hi JSR MAD \ Set (A X) = Q * A + (S R) STA INWK+5,Y \ = beta * nosev_y_hi + nosev_z STX INWK+4,Y \ \ and store (A X) in nosev_z, so this does: \ \ nosev_z = nosev_z + beta * nosev_y_hi RTS \ Return from the subroutineName: MVS4 [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Moving Summary: Apply pitch and roll to an orientation vector Deep dive: Orientation vectors Pitching and rollingContext: See this subroutine on its own page References: This subroutine is called as follows: * MVEIT (Part 7 of 9) calls MVS4

Apply pitch and roll angles alpha and beta to the orientation vector in Y. Specifically, this routine rotates a point (x, y, z) around the origin by pitch alpha and roll beta, using the small angle approximation to make the maths easier, and incorporating the Minsky circle algorithm to make the rotation more stable (though more elliptic). If that paragraph makes sense to you, then you should probably be writing this commentary! For the rest of us, there's a detailed explanation of all this in the deep dive on "Pitching and rolling". Arguments: Y Determines which of the INWK orientation vectors to transform: * Y = 9 rotates nosev: (nosev_x, nosev_y, nosev_z) * Y = 15 rotates roofv: (roofv_x, roofv_y, roofv_z) * Y = 21 rotates sidev: (sidev_x, sidev_y, sidev_z).MVT6 TAY \ Store argument A into Y, for later use EOR INWK+2,X \ Set A = A EOR x_sign BMI MV50 \ If the sign is negative, i.e. A and x_sign have \ different signs, jump to MV50 \ The signs are the same, so we can add the two \ arguments and keep the sign to get the result LDA P+1 \ First we add the low bytes: CLC \ ADC INWK,X \ P+1 = P+1 + x_lo STA P+1 LDA P+2 \ And then the high bytes: ADC INWK+1,X \ STA P+2 \ P+2 = P+2 + x_hi TYA \ Restore the original A argument that we stored earlier \ so that we keep the original sign RTS \ Return from the subroutine .MV50 LDA INWK,X \ First we subtract the low bytes: SEC \ SBC P+1 \ P+1 = x_lo - P+1 STA P+1 LDA INWK+1,X \ And then the high bytes: SBC P+2 \ STA P+2 \ P+2 = x_hi - P+2 BCC MV51 \ If the last subtraction underflowed, then the C flag \ will be clear and x_hi < P+2, so jump to MV51 to \ negate the result TYA \ Restore the original A argument that we stored earlier EOR #%10000000 \ but flip bit 7, which flips the sign. We do this \ because x_hi >= P+2 so we want the result to have the \ same sign as x_hi (as it's the dominant side in this \ calculation). The sign of x_hi is x_sign, and x_sign \ has the opposite sign to A, so we flip the sign in A \ to return the correct result RTS \ Return from the subroutine .MV51 LDA #1 \ Our subtraction underflowed, so we negate the result SBC P+1 \ using two's complement, first with the low byte: STA P+1 \ \ P+1 = 1 - P+1 LDA #0 \ And then the high byte: SBC P+2 \ STA P+2 \ P+2 = 0 - P+2 TYA \ Restore the original A argument that we stored earlier \ as this is the correct sign for the result. This is \ because x_hi < P+2, so we want to return the same sign \ as P+2, the dominant side RTS \ Return from the subroutineName: MVT6 [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Moving Summary: Calculate (A P+2 P+1) = (x_sign x_hi x_lo) + (A P+2 P+1)Context: See this subroutine on its own page References: This subroutine is called as follows: * MVEIT (Part 5 of 9) calls MVT6

Do the following calculation, for the coordinate given by X (so this is what it does for the x-coordinate): (A P+2 P+1) = (x_sign x_hi x_lo) + (A P+2 P+1) A is a sign bit and is not included in the calculation, but bits 0-6 of A are preserved. Bit 7 is set to the sign of the result. Arguments: A The sign of P(2 1) in bit 7 P(2 1) The 16-bit value we want to add the coordinate to X The coordinate to add, as follows: * If X = 0, add to (x_sign x_hi x_lo) * If X = 3, add to (y_sign y_hi y_lo) * If X = 6, add to (z_sign z_hi z_lo) Returns: A The sign of the result (in bit 7).MV40 LDA ALPHA \ Set Q = -ALPHA, so Q contains the angle we want to EOR #%10000000 \ roll the planet through (i.e. in the opposite STA Q \ direction to our ship's roll angle alpha) LDA INWK \ Set P(1 0) = (x_hi x_lo) STA P LDA INWK+1 STA P+1 LDA INWK+2 \ Set A = x_sign JSR MULT3 \ Set K(3 2 1 0) = (A P+1 P) * Q \ \ which also means: \ \ K(3 2 1) = (A P+1 P) * Q / 256 \ = x * -alpha / 256 \ = - alpha * x / 256 LDX #3 \ Set K(3 2 1) = (y_sign y_hi y_lo) + K(3 2 1) JSR MVT3 \ = y - alpha * x / 256 LDA K+1 \ Set K2(2 1) = P(1 0) = K(2 1) STA K2+1 STA P LDA K+2 \ Set K2+2 = K+2 STA K2+2 STA P+1 \ Set P+1 = K+2 LDA BETA \ Set Q = beta, the pitch angle of our ship STA Q LDA K+3 \ Set K+3 to K2+3, so now we have result 1 above: STA K2+3 \ \ K2(3 2 1) = K(3 2 1) \ = y - alpha * x / 256 \ We also have: \ \ A = K+3 \ \ P(1 0) = K(2 1) \ \ so combined, these mean: \ \ (A P+1 P) = K(3 2 1) \ = K2(3 2 1) JSR MULT3 \ Set K(3 2 1 0) = (A P+1 P) * Q \ \ which also means: \ \ K(3 2 1) = (A P+1 P) * Q / 256 \ = K2(3 2 1) * beta / 256 \ = beta * K2 / 256 LDX #6 \ K(3 2 1) = (z_sign z_hi z_lo) + K(3 2 1) JSR MVT3 \ = z + beta * K2 / 256 LDA K+1 \ Set P = K+1 STA P STA INWK+6 \ Set z_lo = K+1 LDA K+2 \ Set P+1 = K+2 STA P+1 STA INWK+7 \ Set z_hi = K+2 LDA K+3 \ Set A = z_sign = K+3, so now we have: STA INWK+8 \ \ (z_sign z_hi z_lo) = K(3 2 1) \ = z + beta * K2 / 256 \ So we now have result 2 above: \ \ z = z + beta * K2 EOR #%10000000 \ Flip the sign bit of A to give A = -z_sign JSR MULT3 \ Set K(3 2 1 0) = (A P+1 P) * Q \ = (-z_sign z_hi z_lo) * beta \ = -z * beta LDA K+3 \ Set T to the sign bit of K(3 2 1 0), i.e. to the sign AND #%10000000 \ bit of -z * beta STA T EOR K2+3 \ If K2(3 2 1 0) has a different sign to K(3 2 1 0), BMI MV1 \ then EOR'ing them will produce a 1 in bit 7, so jump \ to MV1 to take this into account \ If we get here, K and K2 have the same sign, so we can \ add them together to get the result we're after, and \ then set the sign afterwards LDA K \ We now do the following sum: CLC \ ADC K2 \ (A y_hi y_lo -) = K(3 2 1 0) + K2(3 2 1 0) \ \ starting with the low bytes (which we don't keep) \ \ The CLC has no effect because MULT3 clears the C \ flag, so this instruction could be removed (as it is \ in the cassette version, for example) LDA K+1 \ We then do the middle bytes, which go into y_lo ADC K2+1 STA INWK+3 LDA K+2 \ And then the high bytes, which go into y_hi ADC K2+2 STA INWK+4 LDA K+3 \ And then the sign bytes into A, so overall we have the ADC K2+3 \ following, if we drop the low bytes from the result: \ \ (A y_hi y_lo) = (K + K2) / 256 JMP MV2 \ Jump to MV2 to skip the calculation for when K and K2 \ have different signs .MV1 LDA K \ If we get here then K2 and K have different signs, so SEC \ instead of adding, we need to subtract to get the SBC K2 \ result we want, like this: \ \ (A y_hi y_lo -) = K(3 2 1 0) - K2(3 2 1 0) \ \ starting with the low bytes (which we don't keep) LDA K+1 \ We then do the middle bytes, which go into y_lo SBC K2+1 STA INWK+3 LDA K+2 \ And then the high bytes, which go into y_hi SBC K2+2 STA INWK+4 LDA K2+3 \ Now for the sign bytes, so first we extract the sign AND #%01111111 \ byte from K2 without the sign bit, so P = |K2+3| STA P LDA K+3 \ And then we extract the sign byte from K without the AND #%01111111 \ sign bit, so A = |K+3| SBC P \ And finally we subtract the sign bytes, so P = A - P STA P \ By now we have the following, if we drop the low bytes \ from the result: \ \ (A y_hi y_lo) = (K - K2) / 256 \ \ so now we just need to make sure the sign of the \ result is correct BCS MV2 \ If the C flag is set, then the last subtraction above \ didn't underflow and the result is correct, so jump to \ MV2 as we are done with this particular stage LDA #1 \ Otherwise the subtraction above underflowed, as K2 is SBC INWK+3 \ the dominant part of the subtraction, so we need to STA INWK+3 \ negate the result using two's complement, starting \ with the low bytes: \ \ y_lo = 1 - y_lo LDA #0 \ And then the high bytes: SBC INWK+4 \ STA INWK+4 \ y_hi = 0 - y_hi LDA #0 \ And finally the sign bytes: SBC P \ \ A = 0 - P ORA #%10000000 \ We now force the sign bit to be negative, so that the \ final result below gets the opposite sign to K, which \ we want as K2 is the dominant part of the sum .MV2 EOR T \ T contains the sign bit of K, so if K is negative, \ this flips the sign of A STA INWK+5 \ Store A in y_sign \ So we now have result 3 above: \ \ y = K2 + K \ = K2 - beta * z LDA ALPHA \ Set A = alpha STA Q LDA INWK+3 \ Set P(1 0) = (y_hi y_lo) STA P LDA INWK+4 STA P+1 LDA INWK+5 \ Set A = y_sign JSR MULT3 \ Set K(3 2 1 0) = (A P+1 P) * Q \ = (y_sign y_hi y_lo) * alpha \ = y * alpha LDX #0 \ Set K(3 2 1) = (x_sign x_hi x_lo) + K(3 2 1) JSR MVT3 \ = x + y * alpha / 256 LDA K+1 \ Set (x_sign x_hi x_lo) = K(3 2 1) STA INWK \ = x + y * alpha / 256 LDA K+2 STA INWK+1 LDA K+3 STA INWK+2 \ So we now have result 4 above: \ \ x = x + y * alpha JMP MV45 \ We have now finished rotating the planet or sun by \ our pitch and roll, so jump back into the MVEIT \ routine at MV45 to apply all the other movementsName: MV40 [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Moving Summary: Rotate the planet or sun's location in space by the amount of pitch and roll of our shipContext: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: This subroutine is called as follows: * MVEIT (Part 2 of 9) calls MV40

We implement this using the same equations as in part 5 of MVEIT, where we rotated the current ship's location by our pitch and roll. Specifically, the calculation is as follows: 1. K2 = y - alpha * x 2. z = z + beta * K2 3. y = K2 - beta * z 4. x = x + alpha * y See the deep dive on "Rotating the universe" for more details on the above..PLUT LDX VIEW \ Load the current view into X: \ \ 0 = front \ 1 = rear \ 2 = left \ 3 = right BEQ PU2-1 \ If the current view is the front view, return from the \ subroutine (PU2-1 contains an RTS), as the geometry in \ INWK is already correct .PU1 DEX \ Decrement the view, so now: \ \ 0 = rear \ 1 = left \ 2 = right BNE PU2 \ If the current view is left or right, jump to PU2, \ otherwise this is the rear view, so continue on LDA INWK+2 \ Flip the sign of x_sign EOR #%10000000 STA INWK+2 LDA INWK+8 \ Flip the sign of z_sign EOR #%10000000 STA INWK+8 LDA INWK+10 \ Flip the sign of nosev_x_hi EOR #%10000000 STA INWK+10 LDA INWK+14 \ Flip the sign of nosev_z_hi EOR #%10000000 STA INWK+14 LDA INWK+16 \ Flip the sign of roofv_x_hi EOR #%10000000 STA INWK+16 LDA INWK+20 \ Flip the sign of roofv_z_hi EOR #%10000000 STA INWK+20 LDA INWK+22 \ Flip the sign of sidev_x_hi EOR #%10000000 STA INWK+22 LDA INWK+26 \ Flip the sign of roofv_z_hi EOR #%10000000 STA INWK+26 RTS \ Return from the subroutine .PU2 \ We enter this with X set to the view, as follows: \ \ 1 = left \ 2 = right LDA #0 \ Set RAT2 = 0 (left view) or -1 (right view) CPX #2 ROR A STA RAT2 EOR #%10000000 \ Set RAT = -1 (left view) or 0 (right view) STA RAT LDA INWK \ Swap x_lo and z_lo LDX INWK+6 STA INWK+6 STX INWK LDA INWK+1 \ Swap x_hi and z_hi LDX INWK+7 STA INWK+7 STX INWK+1 LDA INWK+2 \ Swap x_sign and z_sign EOR RAT \ If left view, flip sign of new z_sign TAX \ If right view, flip sign of new x_sign LDA INWK+8 EOR RAT2 STA INWK+2 STX INWK+8 LDY #9 \ Swap nosev_x_lo and nosev_z_lo JSR PUS1 \ Swap nosev_x_hi and nosev_z_hi \ If left view, flip sign of new nosev_z_hi \ If right view, flip sign of new nosev_x_hi LDY #15 \ Swap roofv_x_lo and roofv_z_lo JSR PUS1 \ Swap roofv_x_hi and roofv_z_hi \ If left view, flip sign of new roofv_z_hi \ If right view, flip sign of new roofv_x_hi LDY #21 \ Swap sidev_x_lo and sidev_z_lo \ Swap sidev_x_hi and sidev_z_hi \ If left view, flip sign of new sidev_z_hi \ If right view, flip sign of new sidev_x_hi .PUS1 LDA INWK,Y \ Swap the low x and z bytes for the vector in Y: LDX INWK+4,Y \ STA INWK+4,Y \ * For Y = 9 swap nosev_x_lo and nosev_z_lo STX INWK,Y \ * For Y = 15 swap roofv_x_lo and roofv_z_lo \ * For Y = 21 swap sidev_x_lo and sidev_z_lo LDA INWK+1,Y \ Swap the high x and z bytes for the offset in Y: EOR RAT \ TAX \ * If left view, flip sign of new z-coordinate LDA INWK+5,Y \ * If right view, flip sign of new x-coordinate EOR RAT2 STA INWK+1,Y STX INWK+5,Y \ Fall through into LOOK1 to return from the subroutineName: PLUT [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Flight Summary: Flip the coordinate axes for the four different views Deep dive: Flipping axes between space viewsContext: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: This subroutine is called as follows: * Main flight loop (Part 11 of 16) calls PLUT

This routine flips the relevant geometric axes in INWK depending on which view we are looking through (front, rear, left, right)..LO2 RTS \ Return from the subroutine .LQ STX VIEW \ Set the current space view to X JSR TT66 \ Clear the top part of the screen, draw a white border, \ and set the current view type in QQ11 to 0 (space \ view) JSR SIGHT \ Draw the laser crosshairs LDA BOMB \ If our energy bomb has been set off, then BOMB will be BPL P%+5 \ negative, so this skips the following instruction if \ our energy bomb is not going off JSR BOMBLINES \ Our energy bomb is going off, so call BOMBLINES to \ draw the zig-zag lightning bolt JMP NWSTARS \ Set up a new stardust field and return from the \ subroutine using a tail call .LOOK1 LDA #0 \ Set A = 0, the type number of a space view JSR DOVDU19 \ Send a #SETVDU19 0 command to the I/O processor to \ switch to the mode 1 palette for the space view, \ which is yellow (colour 1), red (colour 2) and cyan \ (colour 3) LDY QQ11 \ If the current view is not a space view, jump up to LQ BNE LQ \ to set up a new space view CPX VIEW \ If the current view is already of type X, jump to LO2 BEQ LO2 \ to return from the subroutine (as LO2 contains an RTS) STX VIEW \ Change the current space view to X JSR TT66 \ Clear the top part of the screen, draw a white border, \ and set the current view type in QQ11 to 0 (space \ view) JSR FLIP \ Swap the x- and y-coordinates of all the stardust \ particles and redraw the stardust field LDA BOMB \ If our energy bomb has been set off, then BOMB will be BPL P%+5 \ negative, so this skips the following instruction if \ our energy bomb is not going off JSR BOMBLINES \ Our energy bomb is going off, so call BOMBLINES to \ draw the zig-zag lightning bolt JSR WPSHPS \ Wipe all the ships from the scanner and mark them all \ as not being shown on-screen \ And fall through into SIGHT to draw the laser \ crosshairsName: LOOK1 [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Flight Summary: Initialise the space viewContext: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: This subroutine is called as follows: * MJP calls LOOK1 * TT102 calls LOOK1 * TT110 calls LOOK1 * WARP calls LOOK1 * SIGHT calls entry point LO2

Initialise the space view, with the direction of view given in X. This clears the upper screen and draws the laser crosshairs, if the view in X has lasers fitted. It also wipes all the ships from the scanner, so we can recalculate ship positions for the new view (they get put back in the main flight loop). Arguments: X The space view to set: * 0 = front * 1 = rear * 2 = left * 3 = right Other entry points: LO2 Contains an RTS.SIGHT LDY VIEW \ Fetch the laser power for our new view LDA LASER,Y BEQ LO2 \ If it is zero (i.e. there is no laser fitted to this \ view), jump to LO2 to return from the subroutine (as \ LO2 contains an RTS) LDY #0 \ Set Y to 0, to represent a pulse laser CMP #POW \ If the laser power in A is equal to a pulse laser, BEQ SIGHT1 \ jump to SIGHT1 with Y = 0 INY \ Increment Y to 1, to represent a beam laser CMP #(POW+128) \ If the laser power in A is equal to a beam laser, BEQ SIGHT1 \ jump to SIGHT1 with Y = 1 INY \ Increment Y to 2, to represent a military laser CMP #Armlas \ If the laser power in A is equal to a military laser, BEQ SIGHT1 \ jump to SIGHT1 with Y = 2 INY \ Increment Y to 3, to represent a mining laser .SIGHT1 LDA SIGHTCOL,Y \ Set the colour from the SIGHTCOL table STA COL LDA #128 \ Set QQ19 to the x-coordinate of the centre of the STA QQ19 \ screen LDA #Y-24 \ Set QQ19+1 to the y-coordinate of the centre of the STA QQ19+1 \ screen, minus 24 (because TT15 will add 24 to the \ coordinate when it draws the crosshairs) LDA #20 \ Set QQ19+2 to size 20 for the crosshairs size STA QQ19+2 JSR TT15 \ Call TT15 to draw crosshairs of size 20 just to the \ left of the middle of the screen LDA #10 \ Set QQ19+2 to size 10 for the crosshairs size STA QQ19+2 JMP TT15 \ Call TT15 to draw crosshairs of size 10 at the same \ location, which will remove the centre part from the \ laser crosshairs, leaving a gap in the middle, and \ return from the subroutine using a tail callName: SIGHT [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Flight Summary: Draw the laser crosshairsContext: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: This subroutine is called as follows: * LOOK1 calls SIGHT.SIGHTCOL EQUB YELLOW \ Pulse lasers have yellow sights EQUB CYAN \ Beam lasers have cyan sights EQUB CYAN \ Military lasers have cyan sights EQUB YELLOW \ Mining lasers have yellow sights EQUB WHITE \ These bytes appear to be unused - perhaps they were EQUB WHITE \ going to be used to set different colours of laser EQUB WHITE \ beam for the different lasers? EQUB WHITEName: SIGHTCOL [Show more] Type: Variable Category: Drawing lines Summary: Colours for the crosshair sights on the different laser typesContext: See this variable on its own page References: This variable is used as follows: * SIGHT uses SIGHTCOL.TT66 STA QQ11 \ Set the current view type in QQ11 to A \ Fall through into TTX662 to clear the screen and draw \ a white borderName: TT66 [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Utility routines Summary: Clear the screen and set the current view typeContext: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: This subroutine is called as follows: * BRIEF calls TT66 * DEATH calls TT66 * HALL calls TT66 * HFS2 calls TT66 * LOOK1 calls TT66 * MJP calls TT66 * MT9 calls TT66 * PAUSE calls TT66 * TITLE calls TT66 * TRADEMODE calls TT66 * TT18 calls TT66 * TT22 calls TT66 * TT23 calls TT66 * qv calls TT66

Clear the top part of the screen, draw a white border, and set the current view type in QQ11 to A. Arguments: A The type of the new current view (see QQ11 for a list of view types).TTX662 JSR TTX66 \ Call TTX66 to clear the top part of the screen and \ draw a white border JSR MT2 \ Switch to Sentence Case when printing extended tokens LDA #0 \ Reset the ball line heap pointer at LSP STA LSP LDA #%10000000 \ Set bit 7 of QQ17 to switch to Sentence Case STA QQ17 STA DTW2 \ Set bit 7 of DTW2 to indicate we are not currently \ printing a word JSR FLFLLS \ Call FLFLLS to reset the LSO block LDA #0 \ Set LAS2 = 0 to stop any laser pulsing STA LAS2 STA DLY \ Set the delay in DLY to 0, to indicate that we are \ no longer showing an in-flight message, so any new \ in-flight messages will be shown instantly STA de \ Clear de, the flag that appends " DESTROYED" to the \ end of the next text token, so that it doesn't LDX QQ22+1 \ Fetch into X the number that's shown on-screen during \ the hyperspace countdown BEQ OLDBOX \ If the counter is zero then we are not counting down \ to hyperspace, so jump to OLDBOX to skip the next \ instruction JSR ee3 \ Print the 8-bit number in X at text location (0, 1), \ i.e. print the hyperspace countdown in the top-left \ corner .OLDBOX LDA QQ11 \ If this is not a space view, jump to tt66 to skip BNE tt66 \ displaying the view name LDA #11 \ Move the text cursor to row 11 STA XC LDA #CYAN \ Switch to colour 3, which is cyan in the space view STA COL LDA VIEW \ Load the current view into A: \ \ 0 = front \ 1 = rear \ 2 = left \ 3 = right ORA #&60 \ OR with &60 so we get a value of &60 to &63 (96 to 99) JSR TT27 \ Print recursive token 96 to 99, which will be in the \ range "FRONT" to "RIGHT" JSR TT162 \ Print a space LDA #175 \ Print recursive token 15 ("VIEW ") JSR TT27 .tt66 LDX #0 \ Set QQ17 = 0 to switch to ALL CAPS STX QQ17 RTS \ Return from the subroutineName: TTX662 [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Utility routines Summary: Clear the top part of the screen and draw a white borderContext: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: No direct references to this subroutine in this source file

Clear the top part of the screen (the space view) and draw a white border along the top and sides..TRANTABLE EQUB &00, &40, &FE \ MOS code EQUB &A0, &5F, &8C EQUB &43, &FE, &8E EQUB &4F, &FE, &EA EQUB &AE, &4F, &FE EQUB &60 \ Internal key numbers &10 to &19: \ EQUB &51, &33 \ Q 3 EQUB &34, &35 \ 4 5 EQUB &84, &38 \ f4 8 EQUB &87, &2D \ f7 - EQUB &5E, &8C \ ^ Left arrow EQUB &36, &37, &BC \ MOS code EQUB &00, &FC, &60 \ Internal key numbers &20 to &29: \ EQUB &80, &57 \ f0 W EQUB &45, &54 \ E T EQUB &37, &49 \ 7 I EQUB &39, &30 \ 9 0 EQUB &5F, &8E \ _ Down arrow EQUB &38, &39, &BC \ MOS code EQUB &00, &FD, &60 \ Internal key numbers &30 to &39: \ EQUB &31, &32 \ 1 2 EQUB &44, &52 \ D R EQUB &36, &55 \ 6 U EQUB &4F, &50 \ O P EQUB &5B, &8F \ [ Up arrow EQUB &81, &82, &0D \ MOS code EQUB &4C, &20, &02 \ Internal key numbers &40 to &49: \ EQUB &01, &41 \ CAPS LOCK A EQUB &58, &46 \ X F EQUB &59, &4A \ Y J EQUB &4B, &40 \ K @ EQUB &3A, &0D \ : RETURN EQUB &83, &7F, &AE \ MOS code EQUB &4C, &FE, &FD \ Internal key numbers &50 to &59: \ EQUB &02, &53 \ SHIFT LOCK S EQUB &43, &47 \ C G EQUB &48, &4E \ H N EQUB &4C, &3B \ L ; EQUB &5D, &7F \ ] DELETE EQUB &85, &84, &86 \ MOS code EQUB &4C, &FA, &00 \ Internal key numbers &60 to &69: \ EQUB &00, &5A \ TAB Z EQUB &20, &56 \ Space V EQUB &42, &4D \ B M EQUB &2C, &2E \ , . EQUB &2F, &8B \ / COPY EQUB &30, &31, &33 \ MOS code EQUB &00, &00, &00 \ Internal key numbers &70 to &79: \ EQUB &1B, &81 \ ESCAPE f1 EQUB &82, &83 \ f2 f3 EQUB &85, &86 \ f5 f6 EQUB &88, &89 \ f8 f9 EQUB &5C, &8D \ \ Right arrow EQUB &34, &35, &32 \ MOS code EQUB &2C, &4E, &E3Name: TRANTABLE [Show more] Type: Variable Category: Keyboard Summary: Translation table from internal key number to ASCIIContext: See this variable on its own page Variations: See code variations for this variable in the different versions References: This variable is used as follows: * RDKEY uses TRANTABLE

This is a copy of the keyboard translation table from the BBC Master's MOS 3.20 ROM. The value at offset n is the upper-case ASCII value of the key with internal key number n, so for example the value at offset &10 is &51, which is 81, or ASCII "Q", so internal key number &10 is the key number of the "Q" key. Valid internal key numbers are Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) numbers in the range &10 top &79, so they're in the ranges &10 to &19, then &20 to &29, then &30 to &39, and so on. This means that the other locations - i.e. &1A to &1F, &2A to &2F and so on - aren't used by the lookup table, but the MOS doesn't let this space go to waste; instead, those gaps contain MOS code, which is replicated below as TRANTABLE contains a copy of this entire block of the MOS, not just the table entries. This table allows code running on the parasite to convert internal key numbers into ASCII codes in an efficient way. Without this table we would have to do a lookup from the table in the I/O processor's MOS ROM, which we would have to access from across the Tube, and this would be a lot slower than doing a simple table lookup in the parasite's user RAM..KYTB EQUB &DD EOR &FF \ E KYTB+0 KY13 E.C.M. EQUB &DC EOR &FF \ T KYTB+1 KY10 Arm missile EQUB &CA EOR &FF \ U KYTB+2 KY11 Unarm missile EQUB &C8 EOR &FF \ P KYTB+3 KY16 Cancel docking computer EQUB &BE EOR &FF \ A KYTB+4 KY7 Fire lasers EQUB &BD EOR &FF \ X KYTB+5 KY5 Pitch up EQUB &BA EOR &FF \ J KYTB+6 KY14 In-system jump EQUB &AE EOR &FF \ S KYTB+7 KY6 Pitch down EQUB &AD EOR &FF \ C KYTB+8 KY15 Docking computer EQUB &9F EOR &FF \ TAB KYTB+9 KY8 Energy bomb EQUB &9D EOR &FF \ Space KYTB+10 KY2 Speed up EQUB &9A EOR &FF \ M KYTB+11 KY12 Fire missile EQUB &99 EOR &FF \ < KYTB+12 KY3 Roll left EQUB &98 EOR &FF \ > KYTB+13 KY4 Roll right EQUB &97 EOR &FF \ ? KYTB+14 KY1 Slow down EQUB &8F EOR &FF \ ESCAPE KYTB+15 KY9 Launch escape pod EQUB &F0 \ This value just has to be higher than &80 to act as a \ terminator for the KYTB matching process in DKS1Name: KYTB [Show more] Type: Variable Category: Keyboard Summary: Lookup table for in-flight keyboard controls Deep dive: The key loggerContext: See this variable on its own page Variations: See code variations for this variable in the different versions References: This variable is used as follows: * RDKEY2 uses KYTB

Keyboard table for in-flight controls. This table contains the internal key codes for the flight keys, EOR'd with &FF to invert each bit. The pitch, roll, speed and laser keys (i.e. the seven primary flight control keys) have bit 7 set, so they have 128 added to their internal values. This doesn't appear to be used anywhere..RDKEY2 JSR U% \ Call U% to clear the key logger, which also sets X to \ 0 (so we can use X as an index for working our way \ through the flight keys in RDK3 below) LDA #16 \ Start the scan with internal key number 16 ("Q") CLC \ Clear the C flag so we can do the additions below .RDK1 LDY #%00000011 \ Set Y to %00000011, so it's ready to send to SHEILA \ once interrupts have been disabled SEI \ Disable interrupts so we can scan the keyboard \ without being hijacked STY VIA+&40 \ Set 6522 System VIA output register ORB (SHEILA &40) \ to %00000011 to stop auto scan of keyboard LDY #%01111111 \ Set 6522 System VIA data direction register DDRA STY VIA+&43 \ (SHEILA &43) to %01111111. This sets the A registers \ (IRA and ORA) so that: \ \ * Bits 0-6 of ORA will be sent to the keyboard \ \ * Bit 7 of IRA will be read from the keyboard STA VIA+&4F \ Set 6522 System VIA output register ORA (SHEILA &4F) \ to A, the key we want to scan for; bits 0-6 will be \ sent to the keyboard, of which bits 0-3 determine the \ keyboard column, and bits 4-6 the keyboard row LDY VIA+&4F \ Read 6522 System VIA output register IRA (SHEILA &4F) \ into Y; bit 7 is the only bit that will have changed. \ If the key is pressed, then bit 7 will be set, \ otherwise it will be clear LDA #%00001011 \ Set 6522 System VIA output register ORB (SHEILA &40) STA VIA+&40 \ to %00001011 to restart auto scan of keyboard CLI \ Allow interrupts again TYA \ Transfer Y into A BMI RDK3 \ If the key was pressed then Y is negative, so jump to \ RDK3 .RDK2 ADC #1 \ Increment A to point to the next key to scan for BPL RDK1 \ If A is positive, we still have keys to check, so loop \ back to scan for the next one \ If we get here then no keys are being pressed CLD \ Clear the D flag to return to binary mode (for cases \ where this routine is called in BCD mode) LDA KY6 \ If KY6 ("S") is being pressed, then KY6 is &FF, and EOR #&FF \ KY6 EOR &FF AND KY19 will be zero, so this stops "C" AND KY19 \ from being registered as being pressed if "S" is being STA KY19 \ pressed. This code isn't necessary on a BBC Master, as \ it's from other versions of Elite where there were \ issues with "ghost keys", which the Master didn't have LDA KL \ Fetch the last key pressed from KL TAX \ Copy the key value into X RTS \ Return from the subroutine .RDK3 \ If we get here then the key in A is being pressed. We \ now work our way through the KYTB table, looking for \ a match against the flight keys, using X as an index \ into the table (X was initialised to 0 by the call to \ U% above, and it keeps track of our progress through \ the table between calls to RDK3) EOR #%10000000 \ The key in A is being pressed and the number of the \ key is in A with bit 7 set, so flip bit 7 back to 0 STA KL \ Store the number of the key pressed in KL \ Now to scan the KYTB table for a possible match for \ the pressed key (if we get a match we update the key \ logger, as KYTB contains the flight keys that have \ key logger entries. Because we are scanning the \ keyboard by incrementing the key to check in A, and \ the KYTB table is sorted in increasing order, we don't \ need to scan the whole KYTB table each time for a \ match, we can just check against the next key in the \ table, as pointed to by X .DKL5 CMP KYTB,X \ If A is less than the X-th byte in KYTB, jump back to BCC RDK2 \ RDK2 to continue scanning for more keys, as this key \ isn't in the KYTB table and doesn't have an entry in \ the key logger BEQ P%+5 \ If A is equal to the X-th byte in KYTB, we have a \ match, so skip the next two instructions to go to the \ part where we update the key logger INX \ The pressed key is higher than the KYTB entry at X, so \ increment X to point to the next key in the table BNE DKL5 \ And loop back to DKL5 to test against this next flight \ key in KYTB (this BNE is effectively a JMP as X won't \ get high enough to wrap around to zero) \ If we get here, the pressed key has an entry in the \ key logger, so now to update the logger DEC KY17,X \ We got a match in the KYTB table for our key at \ position X, so we decrement the corresponding key \ logger byte for this key at KY17+X (KY17 is the first \ key in the key logger) INX \ Increment X so next time we check KYTB from the next \ key in the table CLC \ Clear the C flag so we can do more additions BCC RDK2 \ Jump back to RDK2 to continue scanning for more keys \ (this BCC is effectively a JMP as we just cleared the \ C flag)Name: RDKEY2 [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Keyboard Summary: Scan the keyboard for a flight key and update the key loggerContext: See this subroutine on its own page References: This subroutine is called as follows: * RDKEY calls RDKEY2

Returns: X If a key is being pressed, X contains the internal key number, otherwise it contains 0IF _SNG47 .CTRL LDA #1 \ Set A to the internal key number for CTRL and fall \ through to DKS4 to scan the keyboard ENDIFName: CTRL [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Keyboard Summary: Scan the keyboard to see if CTRL is currently pressedContext: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: This subroutine is called as follows: * TT18 calls CTRL * hyp calls CTRL

Returns: X X = %10000001 (i.e. 129 or -127) if CTRL is being pressed X = 1 if CTRL is not being pressed A Contains the same as XIF _SNG47 .DKS4 LDX #3 \ Set X to 3, so it's ready to send to SHEILA once \ interrupts have been disabled SEI \ Disable interrupts so we can scan the keyboard \ without being hijacked STX VIA+&40 \ Set 6522 System VIA output register ORB (SHEILA &40) \ to %00000011 to stop auto scan of keyboard LDX #%01111111 \ Set 6522 System VIA data direction register DDRA STX VIA+&43 \ (SHEILA &43) to %01111111. This sets the A registers \ (IRA and ORA) so that: \ \ * Bits 0-6 of ORA will be sent to the keyboard \ \ * Bit 7 of IRA will be read from the keyboard STA VIA+&4F \ Set 6522 System VIA output register ORA (SHEILA &4F) \ to X, the key we want to scan for; bits 0-6 will be \ sent to the keyboard, of which bits 0-3 determine the \ keyboard column, and bits 4-6 the keyboard row LDX VIA+&4F \ Read 6522 System VIA output register IRA (SHEILA &4F) \ into X; bit 7 is the only bit that will have changed. \ If the key is pressed, then bit 7 will be set, \ otherwise it will be clear LDA #%00001011 \ Set 6522 System VIA output register ORB (SHEILA &40) STA VIA+&40 \ to %00001011 to restart auto scan of keyboard CLI \ Allow interrupts again TXA \ Transfer X into A RTS \ Return from the subroutine ENDIFName: DKS4 [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Keyboard Summary: Scan the keyboard to see if a specific key is being pressed Deep dive: The key loggerContext: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: This subroutine is called as follows: * TT17 calls DKS4

Arguments: A The internal number of the key to check (see p.142 of the Advanced User Guide for a list of internal key numbers) Returns: A If the key in A is being pressed, A contains the original argument A, but with bit 7 set (i.e. A + 128). If the key in A is not being pressed, the value in A is unchanged X Contains the same as A.U% LDA #0 \ Set A to 0, as this means "key not pressed" in the \ key logger at KL LDX #17 \ We want to clear the 17 key logger locations from \ KL to KY20, so set a counter in Y .DKL3 STA JSTY,X \ Store 0 in the Y-th byte of the key logger DEX \ Decrement the counter BNE DKL3 \ And loop back for the next key, until we have just \ KL+1. We don't want to clear the first key logger \ location at KL, as the keyboard table at KYTB starts \ with offset 1, not 0, so KL is not technically part of \ the key logger (it's actually used for logging keys \ that don't appear in the keyboard table, and which \ therefore don't use the key logger) RTS \ Return from the subroutineName: U% [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Keyboard Summary: Clear the key loggerContext: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: This subroutine is called as follows: * BR1 (Part 1 of 2) calls U% * RDKEY2 calls U% * TITLE calls U%

Returns: A A is set to 0 X X is set to 0SED \ Set the D flag to enter decimal mode. Because \ internal key numbers are all valid BCD (Binary Coded \ Decimal) numbers, setting this flag ensures we only \ loop through valid key numbers .RDKEY TYA \ Store Y on the stack so we can retrieve it later PHA JSR RDKEY2 \ Call RDKEY2 to scan the keyboard, update the key \ logger and return any non-logger key presses in X PLA \ Retrieve the value of Y we stored above TAY LDA TRANTABLE,X \ Fetch the internal key number for the key pressed STA KL \ Store the key pressed in KL TAX \ Copy the key value into X RTS \ Return from the subroutineName: RDKEY [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Keyboard Summary: Scan the keyboard for key pressesContext: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: This subroutine is called as follows: * DK4 calls RDKEY * PAS1 calls RDKEY * PAUSE2 calls RDKEY * TITLE calls RDKEY * TT217 calls RDKEY * DOKEY calls entry point RDKEY-1

Scan the keyboard, starting with internal key number 16 ("Q") and working through the set of internal key numbers, returning the resulting key press in ASCII. This routine is effectively the same as OSBYTE 122, though the OSBYTE call preserves A, unlike this routine. Returns: X If a key is being pressed, X contains the ASCII code of the key pressed, otherwise it contains 0 A Contains the same as X Y Y is preserved Other entry points: RDKEY-1 Only scan the keyboard for valid BCD key numbersIF _COMPACT .RDFIRE LDA MOS \ If MOS = 0 then this is a Master Compact, so jump to BEQ DFIRE \ DFIRE to read the digital joystick rather then the \ analogue joystick, as the Compact doesn't have the \ latter CLC \ Clear the C flag LDA VIA+&40 \ Read 6522 System VIA input register IRB (SHEILA &40) AND #%00010000 \ Bit 4 of IRB (PB4) is clear if joystick 1's fire \ button is pressed, otherwise it is set, so AND'ing \ the value of IRB with %10000 extracts this bit BNE P%+3 \ If the joystick fire button is not being pressed, \ jump skip the following to leave the C flag clear SEC \ Set the C flag to indicate the joystick fire button \ is being pressed RTS \ Return from the subroutine .DFIRE LDA VIA+&60 \ Read the 6522 User VIA, which is where the Master \ Compact's digital joystick is mapped to. The pins go \ low when the joystick connection is made, and PB0 is \ connected to the joystick fire button, so when PB0 \ is low, fire is being pressed EOR #%00000001 \ Flip PB0 so that it's 1 if fire is being pressed and \ 0 if it isn't LSR A \ Shift PB0 into the C flag, so it's set if the fire \ button is being pressed RTS \ Return from the subroutine ENDIFName: RDFIRE [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Keyboard Summary: Read the fire button on either the analogue or digital joystickContext: See this subroutine on its own page References: This subroutine is called as follows: * TITLE calls RDFIRE

Returns: C flag Set if the joystick fire button is being pressed, clear if it isn'tIF _COMPACT .RDJOY LDA MOS \ If MOS = 0 then this is a Master Compact, so jump to BEQ DIGITAL \ DIGITAL to read the digital joystick rather then the \ analogue joystick, as the Compact doesn't have the \ latter CLC \ Clear the C flag to indicate that we are reading from \ the analogue joystick LDA ADCH1 \ Fetch the high byte of the joystick X value EOR JSTE \ The high byte A is now EOR'd with the value in \ location JSTE, which contains &FF if both joystick \ channels are reversed and 0 otherwise (so A now \ contains the high byte but inverted, if that's what \ the current settings say) ORA #1 \ Ensure the value is at least 1 STA JSTX \ Store the resulting joystick X value in JSTX LDA ADCH2 \ Fetch the high byte of the joystick Y value EOR #&FF \ This EOR is used in conjunction with the EOR JSTGY \ below, as having a value of 0 in JSTGY means we have \ to invert the joystick Y value, and this EOR does \ that part EOR JSTE \ The high byte A is now EOR'd with the value in \ location JSTE, which contains &FF if both joystick \ channels are reversed and 0 otherwise (so A now \ contains the high byte but inverted, if that's what \ the current settings say) EOR JSTGY \ JSTGY will be 0 if the game is configured to reverse \ the joystick Y channel, so this EOR along with the \ EOR #&FF above does exactly that STA JSTY \ Store the resulting joystick Y value in JSTY LDA VIA+&40 \ Read 6522 System VIA input register IRB (SHEILA &40) AND #%00010000 \ Bit 4 of IRB (PB4) is clear if joystick 1's fire \ button is pressed, otherwise it is set, so AND'ing \ the value of IRB with %10000 extracts this bit BNE P%+6 \ If the joystick fire button is not being pressed, \ jump to DK4 to scan for other keys LDA #&FF \ Update the key logger at KY7 to "press" the "A" (fire) STA KY7 \ button RTS \ Return from the subroutine .DIGITAL LDX #&FF \ Set X = &FF so we can use it to "press" keys in the \ key logger LDA VIA+&60 \ Read the 6522 User VIA, which is where the Master \ Compact's digital joystick is mapped to. The pins go \ low when the joystick connection is made, so we need \ to check whether any of the following are zero: \ \ PB0 = fire \ PB1 = left \ PB2 = down \ PB3 = up \ PB4 = right LSR A \ If PB0 from the User VIA is set (fire button), skip BCS P%+4 \ the following STX KY7 \ Update the key logger at KY7 to "press" the "A" (fire) \ button LSR A \ If PB1 from the User VIA is set (left), skip the BCS P%+4 \ following STX KY3 \ Update the key logger at KY3 to "press" the "<" (roll \ left) button LSR A \ If PB2 from the User VIA is set (down), skip the BCS P%+4 \ following STX KY6 \ Update the key logger at KY6 to "press" the "S" (pitch \ forward) button \ \ Note that this is the opposite key presss to the stick \ direction, as in the default configuration, we want to \ pitch up when we pull the joystick back (i.e. when the \ stick is down). To fix this, we flip this result below LSR A \ If PB3 from the User VIA is set (up), skip the BCS P%+4 \ following STX KY5 \ Update the key logger at KY5 to "press" the "X" (pitch \ back) button \ \ Note that this is the opposite key presss to the stick \ direction, as in the default configuration, we want to \ pitch down when we push the joystick forward (i.e. \ when the stick is up). To fix this, we flip this \ result below LSR A \ If PB4 from the User VIA is set (right), skip the BCS P%+4 \ following STX KY4 \ Update the key logger at KY4 to "press" the ">" (roll \ right) button LDA JSTE \ JSTE contains &FF if both joystick channels are BEQ DIG1 \ reversed and 0 otherwise, so skip to DIG1 if the \ joystick channels are not reversed LDA KY3 \ Both the joystick channels are reversed, so swap the LDX KY4 \ values of KY3 and KY4 (to swap the roll) STX KY3 STA KY4 .DIG1 LDA JSTE \ Set A to &FF if both joystick channels are reversed \ and 0 otherwise EOR JSTGY \ JSTGY will be 0 if the game is configured to reverse \ the joystick Y channel, &FF otherwise, so A will be \ 0 if one of these is true: \ \ * Both channels are normal and Y is reversed \ * Both channels are reversed and Y is not \ \ i.e. it will be 0 if the Y channel is configured to be \ reversed BEQ DIG2 \ If the result in A is 0, skip the following to leave \ the Y channel alone, as we already set the pitch keys \ above to the opposite direction to the stick \ If we get here, then the configuration settings are \ not set to reverse the Y channel, so we now swap KY5 \ and KY6 around, as we set the pitch keys above to the \ opposite direction to the stick LDA KY5 \ The Y channel should be reversed, so swap the values LDX KY6 \ of KY5 and KY6 (to swap the pitch) STX KY5 STA KY6 .DIG2 SEC \ Set the C flag to indicate that we just read the \ digital joystick RTS \ Return from the subroutine ENDIFName: RDJOY [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Keyboard Summary: Read from either the analogue or digital joystickContext: See this subroutine on its own page References: This subroutine is called as follows: * DOKEY calls RDJOY

Returns: C flag Clear if we just read from the analogue joystick, set if we just read from the digital joystickIF _COMPACT .TT17X LDA VIA+&60 \ Read the 6522 User VIA, which is where the Master \ Compact's digital joystick is mapped to. The pins go \ low when the joystick connection is made, so we need \ to check whether any of the following are zero: \ \ PB0 = fire \ PB1 = left \ PB2 = down \ PB3 = up \ PB4 = right LSR A \ Shift the PB0 bit out, as we aren't interested in the \ fire button in this routine LDX #0 \ Set the initial values for the results, X = Y = 0, LDY #0 \ which we now increase or decrease appropriately LSR A \ If PB1 from the User VIA is set (left), skip the BCS P%+3 \ following DEX \ Set X = X - 1 LSR A \ If PB2 from the User VIA is set (down), skip the BCS P%+3 \ following INY \ Set Y = Y + 1 \ \ Note that this is the opposite direction to the stick \ direction, as moving the stick down should decrease Y. \ To fix this, we flip this result below LSR A \ If PB3 from the User VIA is set (up), skip the BCS P%+3 \ following DEY \ Set Y = Y - 1 \ \ Note that this is the opposite direction to the stick \ direction, as moving the stick up should increase Y. \ To fix this, we flip this result below LSR A \ If PB4 from the User VIA is set (right), skip the BCS P%+3 \ following INX \ Set X = X + 1 LDA JSTE \ JSTE contains &FF if both joystick channels are BEQ TT171 \ reversed and 0 otherwise, so skip to L7F80 if the \ joystick channels are not reversed TXA \ The X channel needs to be reversed, so negate the EOR #&FF \ value in X, using two's complement CLC ADC #1 TAX .TT171 LDA JSTE \ Set A to &FF if both joystick channels are reversed \ and 0 otherwise EOR JSTGY \ JSTGY will be 0 if the game is configured to reverse \ the joystick Y channel, &FF otherwise, so A will be \ 0 if one of these is true: \ \ * Both channels are normal and Y is reversed \ * Both channels are reversed and Y is not \ \ i.e. it will be 0 if the Y channel is configured to be \ reversed BEQ TT17X-1 \ If the result in A is 0, return from the subroutine \ (as TT17X-1 contain an RTS), as we already set the Y \ value above to the opposite direction to the stick \ If we get here, then the configuration settings are \ not set to reverse the Y channel, so we now negate the \ Y value, as we set Y above to the opposite direction \ to the stick TYA \ The Y channel should be reversed, so negate the value EOR #&FF \ in Y, using two's complement CLC ADC #1 TAY \ Fall through into ECMOF to return from the subroutine ENDIFName: TT17X [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Keyboard Summary: Scan the digital joystick for movementContext: See this subroutine on its own page References: This subroutine is called as follows: * DJOY calls TT17X

Scan the digital joystick for stick movement, and return the result as deltas (changes) in x- and y-coordinates as follows: * For joystick, X and Y are integers between -2 and +2 depending on how far the stick has moved Returns: X Change in the x-coordinate according to the joystick movement, as an integer (see above) Y Change in the y-coordinate according to the joystick movement, as an integer (see above)RTS \ Return from the subroutine .ECMOF IF _SNG47 LDA #0 \ Set ECMA and ECMP to 0 to indicate that no E.C.M. is STA ECMA \ currently running STA ECMP ELIF _COMPACT STZ ECMA \ Set ECMA and ECMP to 0 to indicate that no E.C.M. is STZ ECMP \ currently running ENDIF JMP ECBLB \ Update the E.C.M. indicator bulb on the dashboard and \ return from the subroutine using a tail callName: ECMOF [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Sound Summary: Switch off the E.C.M.Context: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: This subroutine is called as follows: * Main flight loop (Part 16 of 16) calls ECMOF * RES2 calls ECMOF * SFRMIS calls entry point ECMOF-1

Switch the E.C.M. off, turn off the dashboard bulb and make the sound of the E.C.M. switching off). Other entry points: ECMOF-1 Contains an RTS.SFRMIS LDX #MSL \ Set X to the ship type of a missile, and call SFS1-2 JSR SFS1-2 \ to add the missile to our universe with an AI flag \ of %11111110 (AI enabled, hostile, no E.C.M.) IF _SNG47 BCC ECMOF-1 \ The C flag will be set if the call to SFS1-2 was a \ success, so if it's clear, jump to KYTB to return from \ the subroutine (as ECMOF-1 contains an RTS) ELIF _COMPACT BCC TT17X-1 \ The C flag will be set if the call to SFS1-2 was a \ success, so if it's clear, jump to KYTB to return from \ the subroutine (as TT17X-1 contains an RTS) ENDIF LDA #120 \ Print recursive token 120 ("INCOMING MISSILE") as an JSR MESS \ in-flight message LDY #8 \ Call the NOISE routine with Y = 8 to make the sound JMP NOISE \ of the missile being launched and return from the \ subroutine using a tail callName: SFRMIS [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Tactics Summary: Add an enemy missile to our local bubble of universeContext: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: This subroutine is called as follows: * TACTICS (Part 5 of 7) calls SFRMIS

An enemy has fired a missile, so add the missile to our universe if there is room, and if there is, make the appropriate warnings and noises..EXNO2 LDA TALLYF \ We now add the fractional kill count to our tally, CLC \ starting by with the fractional bytes: ADC TALLYFRAC-1,X \ STA TALLYF \ TALLYF = TALLYF + fractional kill count \ \ where the fractional kill count is taken from the \ TALLYFRAC table, according to the ship's type (we \ look up the X-1-th value from TALLYFRAC because ship \ types start at 1 rather than 0) LDA TALLY \ And then we add the low byte of TALLY(1 0): ADC TALLYINT-1,X \ STA TALLY \ TALLY = TALLY + carry + integer kill count \ \ where the integer kill count is taken from the \ TALLYINT table in the same way BCC EXNO3 \ If there is no carry, jump straight to EXNO3 to skip \ the following three instructions INC TALLY+1 \ Increment the high byte of the kill count in TALLY LDA #101 \ The kill total is a multiple of 256, so it's time JSR MESS \ for a pat on the back, so print recursive token 101 \ ("RIGHT ON COMMANDER!") as an in-flight message \ Fall through into EXNO3 to make the sound of a \ ship explodingName: EXNO2 [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Sound Summary: Process us making a kill Deep dive: Combat rankContext: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: This subroutine is called as follows: * Main flight loop (Part 11 of 16) calls EXNO2 * Main flight loop (Part 5 of 16) calls EXNO2 * TACTICS (Part 1 of 7) calls EXNO2

We have killed a ship, so increase the kill tally, displaying an iconic message of encouragement if the kill total is a multiple of 256, and then make a nearby explosion sound. Arguments: X The type of the ship that was killed.EXNO3 LDY #4 \ Call the NOISE routine with Y = 4 to make the sound of JMP NOISE \ an explosion and return from the subroutine using a \ tail callName: EXNO3 [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Sound Summary: Make an explosion soundContext: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: This subroutine is called as follows: * EXNO2 calls EXNO3 * Main flight loop (Part 10 of 16) calls EXNO3 * OOPS calls EXNO3 * TACTICS (Part 1 of 7) calls EXNO3

Make the sound of death in the cold, hard vacuum of space. Apparently, in Elite space, everyone can hear you scream. This routine also makes the sound of a destroyed cargo canister if we don't get scooping right, the sound of us colliding with another ship, and the sound of us being hit with depleted shields. It is not a good sound to hear..EXNO LDY #6 \ Call the NOISE routine with Y = 6 to make the sound of JMP NOISE \ us making a hit or kill and return from the subroutine \ using a tail callName: EXNO [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Sound Summary: Make the sound of a laser strike or ship explosionContext: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: This subroutine is called as follows: * Main flight loop (Part 11 of 16) calls EXNO

Make the two-part explosion sound of us making a laser strike, or of another ship exploding. Other entry points: EXNO-2 Set X = 7 and fall through into EXNO to make the sound of a ship exploding.BRKBK LDA #LO(BRBR) \ Set BRKV to point to the BRBR routine STA BRKV LDA #HI(BRBR) STA BRKV+1 LDA #LO(CHPR) \ Set WRCHV to point to the CHPR routine STA WRCHV LDA #HI(CHPR) STA WRCHV+1 JSR SAVEZP \ Call SAVEZP to backup the top part of zero page JSR STARTUP \ Call STARTUP to set various vectors, interrupts and \ timers JMP SRESET \ Call SRESET to reset the sound buffers and return from \ the subroutine using a tail call IF _SNG47 CLI \ These instructions are never reached and have no RTI \ effect ENDIFName: BRKBK [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Save and load Summary: Set the standard BRKV handler for the gameContext: See this subroutine on its own page Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: This subroutine is called as follows: * S% calls BRKBK.F% SKIP 0 IF _COMPACT EQUD &F8F8F8F8 \ These bytes appear to be unused EQUD &F8F8F8F8 EQUD &F8F8F8F8 EQUD &F8F8F8F8 EQUW &F8F8 EQUB &F8 ENDIFName: F% [Show more] Type: Variable Category: Utility routines Summary: Denotes the end of the main game code, from Elite A to Elite HContext: See this variable on its own page Variations: See code variations for this variable in the different versions References: This variable is used as follows: * scramble uses F%PRINT "ELITE H" PRINT "Assembled at ", ~CODE_H% PRINT "Ends at ", ~P% PRINT "Code size is ", ~(P% - CODE_H%) PRINT "Execute at ", ~LOAD% PRINT "Reload at ", ~LOAD_H% PRINT "S.ELTH ", ~CODE_H%, " ", ~P%, " ", ~LOAD%, " ", ~LOAD_H% \SAVE "3-assembled-output/ELTH.bin", CODE_G%, P%, LOAD%Save ELTH.binPRINT "S.BCODE ", ~CODE%, " ", ~P%, " ", ~LOAD%, " ", ~LOAD% SAVE "3-assembled-output/BCODE.unprot.bin", CODE%, P%, LOAD% PRINT "Addresses for the scramble routines in elite-checksum.py" PRINT "F% = ", ~F% PRINT "DEFAULT% = ", ~DEFAULT%Save BCODE.unprot.bin

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Configuration variable: Armlas = INT(128.5+1.5*POW)

Military laser power

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Subroutine BOMBLINES (category: Drawing lines)

Draw the zig-zag lightning bolt for the energy bomb

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Subroutine BRBR (category: Utility routines)

The standard BRKV handler for the game

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Configuration variable: BRKV = &0202

The break vector that we intercept to enable us to handle and display system errors

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Subroutine CHPR (category: Text)

Print a character at the text cursor by poking into screen memory

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Configuration variable: CYAN = %11111111

Four mode 1 pixels of colour 3 (cyan or white)

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Subroutine DOVDU19 (category: Screen mode)

Change the mode 1 palette

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Variable DTW2 (category: Text)

A flag that indicates whether we are currently printing a word

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Subroutine ECBLB (category: Dashboard)

Light up the E.C.M. indicator bulb ("E") on the dashboard

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Entry point ECMOF-1 in subroutine ECMOF (category: Sound)

Contains an RTS

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Subroutine EXNO3 (category: Sound)

Make an explosion sound

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Subroutine FLFLLS (category: Drawing suns)

Reset the sun line heap

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Subroutine FLIP (category: Stardust)

Reflect the stardust particles in the screen diagonal and redraw the stardust field

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Subroutine FMLTU (category: Maths (Arithmetic))

Calculate A = A * Q / 256

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Variable KYTB (category: Keyboard)

Lookup table for in-flight keyboard controls

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Entry point LO2 in subroutine LOOK1 (category: Flight)

Contains an RTS

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The ball line heap pointer, which contains the number of the first free byte after the end of the LSX2 and LSY2 heaps (see the deep dive on The ball line heap for details)

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Subroutine MAD (category: Maths (Arithmetic))

Calculate (A X) = Q * A + (S R)

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Subroutine MESS (category: Text)

Display an in-flight message

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Subroutine MLTU2 (category: Maths (Arithmetic))

Calculate (A P+1 P) = (A ~P) * Q

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Entry point MLTU2-2 in subroutine MLTU2 (category: Maths (Arithmetic))

Set Q to X, so this calculates (A P+1 P) = (A ~P) * X

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Configuration variable: MSL = 1

Ship type for a missile

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Subroutine MT2 (category: Text)

Switch to Sentence Case when printing extended tokens

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Subroutine MULT3 (category: Maths (Arithmetic))

Calculate K(3 2 1 0) = (A P+1 P) * Q

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Label MV26 in subroutine MVEIT (Part 2 of 9)

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Label MV3 in subroutine MVEIT (Part 2 of 9)

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Label MV30 in subroutine MVEIT (Part 2 of 9)

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Subroutine MV40 (category: Moving)

Rotate the planet or sun's location in space by the amount of pitch and roll of our ship

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Label MV43 in subroutine MVEIT (Part 5 of 9)

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Label MV44 in subroutine MVEIT (Part 5 of 9)

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Entry point MV45 in subroutine MVEIT (Part 6 of 9) (category: Moving)

Rejoin the MVEIT routine after the rotation, tactics and scanner code

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Label MV5 in subroutine MVEIT (Part 9 of 9)

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Label MV8 in subroutine MVEIT (Part 8 of 9)

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Label MVD1 in subroutine MVEIT (Part 9 of 9)

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Subroutine MVS4 (category: Moving)

Apply pitch and roll to an orientation vector

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Subroutine MVS5 (category: Moving)

Apply a 3.6 degree pitch or roll to an orientation vector

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Subroutine MVT1 (category: Moving)

Calculate (x_sign x_hi x_lo) = (x_sign x_hi x_lo) + (A R)

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Entry point MVT1-2 in subroutine MVT1 (category: Moving)

Clear bits 0-6 of A before entering MVT1

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Subroutine MVT3 (category: Moving)

Calculate K(3 2 1) = (x_sign x_hi x_lo) + K(3 2 1)

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Subroutine MVT6 (category: Moving)

Calculate (A P+2 P+1) = (x_sign x_hi x_lo) + (A P+2 P+1)

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Subroutine NOISE (category: Sound)

Make the sound whose number is in Y by populating the sound buffer

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Subroutine NWSTARS (category: Stardust)

Initialise the stardust field

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Configuration variable: POW = 15

Pulse laser power

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Subroutine RDKEY2 (category: Keyboard)

Scan the keyboard for a flight key and update the key logger

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Subroutine SAVEZP (category: Utility routines)

Save zero page (&0090 to &00FF) into the buffer at &3000

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Subroutine SCAN (category: Dashboard)

Display the current ship on the scanner

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Entry point SFS1-2 in subroutine SFS1 (category: Universe)

Add a missile to the local bubble that has AI enabled, is hostile, but has no E.C.M.

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Subroutine SIGHT (category: Flight)

Draw the laser crosshairs

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Variable SIGHTCOL (category: Drawing lines)

Colours for the crosshair sights on the different laser types

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Subroutine SRESET (category: Sound)

Reset the sound buffer and turn off all sound channels

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Subroutine STARTUP (category: Loader)

Set the various vectors, interrupts and timers

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Subroutine TACTICS (Part 2 of 7) (category: Tactics)

Apply tactics: Escape pod, station, lone Thargon, safe-zone pirate

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Configuration variable: TALLYFRAC = &8063

The address of the kill tally fraction table, as set in elite-data.asm

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Configuration variable: TALLYINT = &8084

The address of the kill tally integer table, as set in elite-data.asm

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Subroutine TIDY (category: Maths (Geometry))

Orthonormalise the orientation vectors for a ship

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Variable TRANTABLE (category: Keyboard)

Translation table from internal key number to ASCII

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Subroutine TT15 (category: Drawing lines)

Draw a set of crosshairs

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Subroutine TT162 (category: Text)

Print a space

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Subroutine TT17X (category: Keyboard)

Scan the digital joystick for movement

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Subroutine TT27 (category: Text)

Print a text token

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Subroutine TT66 (category: Utility routines)

Clear the screen and set the current view type

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Subroutine TTX66 (category: Utility routines)

Clear the top part of the screen and draw a white border

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Subroutine U% (category: Keyboard)

Clear the key logger

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Configuration variable: VIA = &FE00

Memory-mapped space for accessing internal hardware, such as the video ULA, 6845 CRTC and 6522 VIAs (also known as SHEILA)

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Configuration variable: WHITE = %11111010

Four mode 1 pixels of colour 3, 2, 3, 2 (cyan/red)

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Subroutine WPSHPS (category: Dashboard)

Clear the scanner, reset the ball line and sun line heaps

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Configuration variable: WRCHV = &020E

The WRCHV vector that we intercept to implement our own custom OSWRCH commands for communicating over the Tube

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Temporary storage, used to store the address of a ship blueprint. For example, it is used when we add a new ship to the local bubble in routine NWSHP, and it contains the address of the current ship's blueprint as we loop through all the nearby ships in the main flight loop

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Configuration variable: Y = 96

The centre y-coordinate of the 256 x 192 space view

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Configuration variable: YELLOW = %00001111

Four mode 1 pixels of colour 1 (yellow)

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Subroutine ee3 (category: Text)

Print the hyperspace countdown in the top-left of the screen