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Version analysis of LL28

This code appears in the following versions (click to see it in the source code):

Code variations between these versions are shown below.

Name: LL28 Type: Subroutine Category: Maths (Arithmetic) Summary: Calculate R = 256 * A / Q

Code variation 1 of 7A variation in the comments only

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Cassette, Flight, Docked, Electron

6502SP, Master


Calculate the following, where A < Q: R = 256 * A / Q This is a sister routine to LL61, which does the division when A >= Q. If A >= Q then 255 is returned and the C flag is set to indicate an overflow (the C flag is clear if the division was a success). The result is returned in one byte as the result of the division multiplied by 256, so we can return fractional results using integers.

Code variation 2 of 7A variation in the comments only

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Cassette, Flight, Docked, Electron

6502SP, Master

This routine uses the same shift-and-subtract algorithm that's documented in TIS2, but it leaves the fractional result in the integer range 0-255.
This routine uses the same logarithm algorithm that's documented in FMLTU, except it subtracts the logarithm values, to do a division instead of a multiplication.
Returns: C flag Set if the answer is too big for one byte, clear if the division was a success Other entry points: LL28+4 Skips the A >= Q check and always returns with C flag cleared, so this can be called if we know the division will work LL31 Skips the A >= Q check and does not set the R counter, so this can be used for jumping straight into the division loop if R is already set to 254 and we know the division will work
.LL28 CMP Q \ If A >= Q, then the answer will not fit in one byte, BCS LL2 \ so jump to LL2 to return 255

Code variation 3 of 7Other (e.g. bug fix, optimisation)

The LL28 routine in the advanced versions uses logarithms to speed up the multiplication.

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Cassette, Flight, Docked, Electron

6502SP, Master

LDX #%11111110 \ Set R to have bits 1-7 set, so we can rotate through 7 STX R \ loop iterations, getting a 1 each time, and then \ getting a 0 on the 8th iteration... and we can also \ use R to catch our result bits into bit 0 each time
STA widget \ Store A in widget, so now widget = argument A TAX \ Transfer A into X, so now X = argument A BEQ LLfix \ If A = 0, jump to LLfix to return a result of 0, as \ 0 * Q / 256 is always 0 \ We now want to calculate log(A) + log(Q), first adding \ the low bytes (from the logL table), and then the high \ bytes (from the log table) LDA logL,X \ Set A = low byte of log(X) \ = low byte of log(A) (as we set X to A above) LDX Q \ Set X = Q SEC \ Set A = A - low byte of log(Q) SBC logL,X \ = low byte of log(A) - low byte of log(Q)

Code variation 4 of 7Other (e.g. bug fix, optimisation)

The Master version omits half of the logarithm algorithm when compared to the 6502SP version.

See below for more variations related to this code.

This variation is blank in the Cassette, Disc (flight), Disc (docked), Master and Electron versions.

6502SP

BMI noddlog \ If the subtraction is negative, jump to noddlog

Code variation 5 of 7Other (e.g. bug fix, optimisation)

See variation 4 above for details.

This variation is blank in the Cassette, Disc (flight), Disc (docked) and Electron versions.

6502SP, Master

LDX widget \ Set A = high byte of log(A) - high byte of log(Q) LDA log,X LDX Q SBC log,X BCS LL2 \ If the subtraction fitted into one byte and didn't \ underflow, then log(A) - log(Q) < 256, so we jump to \ LL2 return a result of 255 TAX \ Otherwise we return the A-th entry from the antilog LDA antilog,X \ table .LLfix STA R \ Set the result in R to the value of A RTS \ Return from the subroutine

Code variation 6 of 7Other (e.g. bug fix, optimisation)

See variation 4 above for details.

This variation is blank in the Cassette, Disc (flight), Disc (docked) and Electron versions.

Tap on a version to expand it, and tap it again to show to all variations.

Master

6502SP

BCS LL2 \ If the subtraction fitted into one byte and didn't \ underflow, then log(A) - log(Q) < 256, so we jump to \ LL2 to return a result of 255 LDX #254 \ Otherwise set the result in R to 254 STX R
.noddlog LDX widget \ Set A = high byte of log(A) - high byte of log(Q) LDA log,X LDX Q SBC log,X BCS LL2 \ If the subtraction fitted into one byte and didn't \ underflow, then log(A) - log(Q) < 256, so we jump to \ LL2 to return a result of 255 TAX \ Otherwise we return the A-th entry from the antilogODD LDA antilogODD,X \ table STA R \ Set the result in R to the value of A RTS \ Return from the subroutine
.LL31

 ASL A                  \ Shift A to the left

 BCS LL29               \ If bit 7 of A was set, then jump straight to the
                        \ subtraction

 CMP Q                  \ If A < Q, skip the following subtraction
 BCC P%+4

 SBC Q                  \ A >= Q, so set A = A - Q

 ROL R                  \ Rotate the counter in R to the left, and catch the
                        \ result bit into bit 0 (which will be a 0 if we didn't
                        \ do the subtraction, or 1 if we did)

 BCS LL31               \ If we still have set bits in R, loop back to LL31 to
                        \ do the next iteration of 7

 RTS                    \ R left with remainder of division

.LL29

 SBC Q                  \ A >= Q, so set A = A - Q

 SEC                    \ Set the C flag to rotate into the result in R

 ROL R                  \ Rotate the counter in R to the left, and catch the
                        \ result bit into bit 0 (which will be a 0 if we didn't
                        \ do the subtraction, or 1 if we did)

 BCS LL31               \ If we still have set bits in R, loop back to LL31 to
                        \ do the next iteration of 7

Code variation 7 of 7Other (e.g. bug fix, optimisation)

The advanced versions of LL28 return the remainder in A, which the other versions don't.

This variation is blank in the Cassette, Disc (flight), Disc (docked) and Electron versions.

6502SP, Master

LDA R \ Set A to the remainder in R
 RTS                    \ Return from the subroutine with R containing the
                        \ remainder of the division

.LL2

 LDA #255               \ The division is very close to 1, so return the closest
 STA R                  \ possible answer to 256, i.e. R = 255

 RTS                    \ Return from the subroutine

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