.LFT LDA SWAP \ If SWAP = 0 then we didn't swap the coordinates above, BEQ LI291 \ so jump down to LI291 to plot the first pixel TYA \ Fetch bits 0-2 of the y-coordinate, so Y contains the AND #7 \ y-coordinate mod 8 TAY BNE P%+5 \ If Y = 0, jump to LI407+8 to start plotting from the JMP LI407+8 \ pixel above the top row of this character block \ (LI407+8 points to the DEX instruction after the \ EOR/STA instructions, so the pixel at row 0 doesn't \ get plotted but we join at the right point to \ decrement X and Y correctly to continue plotting from \ the character row above) CPY #2 \ If Y < 2 (i.e. Y = 1), jump to LI406+8 to start BCS P%+5 \ plotting from row 0 of this character block, missing JMP LI406+8 \ out row 1 CLC \ Clear the C flag so it doesn't affect the arithmetic \ below BNE P%+5 \ If Y = 2, jump to LI405+8 to start plotting from row JMP LI405+8 \ 1 of this character block, missing out row 2 CPY #4 \ If Y < 4 (i.e. Y = 3), jump to LI404+8 to start BCS P%+5 \ plotting from row 2 of this character block, missing JMP LI404+8 \ out row 3 CLC \ Clear the C flag so it doesn't affect the arithmetic \ below BNE P%+5 \ If Y = 4, jump to LI403+8 to start plotting from row JMP LI403+8 \ 3 of this character block, missing out row 4 CPY #6 \ If Y < 6 (i.e. Y = 5), jump to LI402+8 to start BCS P%+5 \ plotting from row 4 of this character block, missing JMP LI402+8 \ out row 5 CLC \ Clear the C flag so it doesn't affect the arithmetic \ below BEQ P%+5 \ If Y <> 6 (i.e. Y = 7), jump to LI400+8 to start JMP LI400+8 \ plotting from row 6 of this character block, missing \ out row 7 JMP LI401+8 \ Otherwise Y = 6, so jump to LI401+8 to start plotting \ from row 5 of this character block, missing out row 6 .LI291 DEX \ Decrement the counter in X because we're about to plot \ the first pixel TYA \ Fetch bits 0-2 of the y-coordinate, so Y contains the AND #7 \ y-coordinate mod 8 TAY BNE P%+5 \ If Y = 0, jump to LI407 to start plotting from row 0 JMP LI407 \ of this character block CPY #2 \ If Y < 2 (i.e. Y = 1), jump to LI406 to start plotting BCS P%+5 \ from row 1 of this character block JMP LI406 CLC \ Clear the C flag so it doesn't affect the arithmetic \ below BNE P%+5 \ If Y = 2, jump to LI405 to start plotting from row 2 JMP LI405 \ of this character block CPY #4 \ If Y < 4 (i.e. Y = 3), jump to LI404 (via LI404S) to BCC LI404S \ start plotting from row 3 of this character block CLC \ Clear the C flag so it doesn't affect the arithmetic \ below BEQ LI403S \ If Y = 4, jump to LI403 (via LI403S) to start plotting \ from row 4 of this character block CPY #6 \ If Y < 6 (i.e. Y = 5), jump to LI402 (via LI402S) to BCC LI402S \ start plotting from row 5 of this character block CLC \ Clear the C flag so it doesn't affect the arithmetic \ below BEQ LI401S \ If Y = 6, jump to LI401 (via LI401S) to start plotting \ from row 6 of this character block JMP LI400 \ Otherwise Y = 7, so jump to LI400 to start plotting \ from row 7 of this character block .LI410 ASL R \ If we get here then the slope error just overflowed \ after plotting the pixel in LI400, so shift the single \ pixel in R to the left, so the next pixel we plot will \ be at the previous x-coordinate BCC LI401 \ If the pixel didn't fall out of the left end of R \ into the C flag, then jump to LI401 to plot the pixel \ on the next character row up LDA #%00010001 \ Otherwise we need to move over to the next character STA R \ block to the left, so set a mask in R to the fourth \ pixel in the 4-pixel byte LDA SC \ Subtract 8 from SC, so SC(1 0) now points to the SBC #8 \ previous character along to the left STA SC BCS P%+4 \ If the subtraction underflowed, decrement the high DEC SC+1 \ byte in SC(1 0) to move to the previous page in \ screen memory CLC \ Clear the C flag so it doesn't affect the arithmetic \ below .LI401S BCC LI401 \ Jump to LI401 to rejoin the pixel plotting routine \ (this BCC is effectively a JMP as the C flag is clear) .LI411 ASL R \ If we get here then the slope error just overflowed \ after plotting the pixel in LI410, so shift the single \ pixel in R to the left, so the next pixel we plot will \ be at the previous x-coordinate BCC LI402 \ If the pixel didn't fall out of the left end of R \ into the C flag, then jump to LI402 to plot the pixel \ on the next character row up LDA #%00010001 \ Otherwise we need to move over to the next character STA R \ block to the left, so set a mask in R to the fourth \ pixel in the 4-pixel byte LDA SC \ Subtract 8 from SC, so SC(1 0) now points to the SBC #8 \ previous character along to the left STA SC BCS P%+4 \ If the subtraction underflowed, decrement the high DEC SC+1 \ byte in SC(1 0) to move to the previous page in \ screen memory CLC \ Clear the C flag so it doesn't affect the arithmetic \ below .LI402S BCC LI402 \ Jump to LI402 to rejoin the pixel plotting routine \ (this BCC is effectively a JMP as the C flag is clear) .LI412 ASL R \ If we get here then the slope error just overflowed \ after plotting the pixel in LI420, so shift the single \ pixel in R to the left, so the next pixel we plot will \ be at the previous x-coordinate BCC LI403 \ If the pixel didn't fall out of the left end of R \ into the C flag, then jump to LI403 to plot the pixel \ on the next character row up LDA #%00010001 \ Otherwise we need to move over to the next character STA R \ block to the left, so set a mask in R to the fourth \ pixel in the 4-pixel byte LDA SC \ Subtract 8 from SC, so SC(1 0) now points to the SBC #8 \ previous character along to the left STA SC BCS P%+4 \ If the subtraction underflowed, decrement the high DEC SC+1 \ byte in SC(1 0) to move to the previous page in \ screen memory CLC \ Clear the C flag so it doesn't affect the arithmetic \ below .LI403S BCC LI403 \ Jump to LI403 to rejoin the pixel plotting routine \ (this BCC is effectively a JMP as the C flag is clear) .LI413 ASL R \ If we get here then the slope error just overflowed \ after plotting the pixel in LI430, so shift the single \ pixel in R to the left, so the next pixel we plot will \ be at the previous x-coordinate BCC LI404 \ If the pixel didn't fall out of the left end of R \ into the C flag, then jump to LI404 to plot the pixel \ on the next character row up LDA #%00010001 \ Otherwise we need to move over to the next character STA R \ block to the left, so set a mask in R to the fourth \ pixel in the 4-pixel byte LDA SC \ Subtract 8 from SC, so SC(1 0) now points to the SBC #8 \ previous character along to the left STA SC BCS P%+4 \ If the subtraction underflowed, decrement the high DEC SC+1 \ byte in SC(1 0) to move to the previous page in \ screen memory CLC \ Clear the C flag so it doesn't affect the arithmetic \ below .LI404S BCC LI404 \ Jump to LI404 to rejoin the pixel plotting routine \ (this BCC is effectively a JMP as the C flag is clear) .LIEX5 RTS \ Return from the subroutine .LI400 \ Plot a pixel on row 7 of this character block LDA R \ Fetch the pixel byte from R and apply the colour in AND COL \ COL to it EOR (SC),Y \ Store A into screen memory at SC(1 0), using EOR STA (SC),Y \ logic so it merges with whatever is already on-screen DEX \ Decrement the counter in X BEQ LIEX5 \ If we have just reached the right end of the line, \ jump to LIEX5 to return from the subroutine DEY \ Decrement Y to step up along the y-axis LDA S \ Set S = S + P to update the slope error ADC P STA S BCS LI410 \ If the addition overflowed, jump to LI410 to move to \ the pixel in the row above, which returns us to LI401 \ below .LI401 \ Plot a pixel on row 6 of this character block LDA R \ Fetch the pixel byte from R and apply the colour in AND COL \ COL to it EOR (SC),Y \ Store A into screen memory at SC(1 0), using EOR STA (SC),Y \ logic so it merges with whatever is already on-screen DEX \ Decrement the counter in X BEQ LIEX5 \ If we have just reached the right end of the line, \ jump to LIEX5 to return from the subroutine DEY \ Decrement Y to step up along the y-axis LDA S \ Set S = S + P to update the slope error ADC P STA S BCS LI411 \ If the addition overflowed, jump to LI411 to move to \ the pixel in the row above, which returns us to LI402 \ below .LI402 \ Plot a pixel on row 5 of this character block LDA R \ Fetch the pixel byte from R and apply the colour in AND COL \ COL to it EOR (SC),Y \ Store A into screen memory at SC(1 0), using EOR STA (SC),Y \ logic so it merges with whatever is already on-screen DEX \ Decrement the counter in X BEQ LIEX5 \ If we have just reached the right end of the line, \ jump to LIEX5 to return from the subroutine DEY \ Decrement Y to step up along the y-axis LDA S \ Set S = S + P to update the slope error ADC P STA S BCS LI412 \ If the addition overflowed, jump to LI412 to move to \ the pixel in the row above, which returns us to LI403 \ below .LI403 \ Plot a pixel on row 4 of this character block LDA R \ Fetch the pixel byte from R and apply the colour in AND COL \ COL to it EOR (SC),Y \ Store A into screen memory at SC(1 0), using EOR STA (SC),Y \ logic so it merges with whatever is already on-screen DEX \ Decrement the counter in X BEQ LIEX5 \ If we have just reached the right end of the line, \ jump to LIEX5 to return from the subroutine DEY \ Decrement Y to step up along the y-axis LDA S \ Set S = S + P to update the slope error ADC P STA S BCS LI413 \ If the addition overflowed, jump to LI413 to move to \ the pixel in the row above, which returns us to LI404 \ below .LI404 \ Plot a pixel on row 3 of this character block LDA R \ Fetch the pixel byte from R and apply the colour in AND COL \ COL to it EOR (SC),Y \ Store A into screen memory at SC(1 0), using EOR STA (SC),Y \ logic so it merges with whatever is already on-screen DEX \ Decrement the counter in X BEQ LIEX6 \ If we have just reached the right end of the line, \ jump to LIEX6 to return from the subroutine DEY \ Decrement Y to step up along the y-axis LDA S \ Set S = S + P to update the slope error ADC P STA S BCS LI414 \ If the addition overflowed, jump to LI414 to move to \ the pixel in the row above, which returns us to LI405 \ below .LI405 \ Plot a pixel on row 2 of this character block LDA R \ Fetch the pixel byte from R and apply the colour in AND COL \ COL to it EOR (SC),Y \ Store A into screen memory at SC(1 0), using EOR STA (SC),Y \ logic so it merges with whatever is already on-screen DEX \ Decrement the counter in X BEQ LIEX6 \ If we have just reached the right end of the line, \ jump to LIEX6 to return from the subroutine DEY \ Decrement Y to step up along the y-axis LDA S \ Set S = S + P to update the slope error ADC P STA S BCS LI415 \ If the addition overflowed, jump to LI415 to move to \ the pixel in the row above, which returns us to LI406 \ below .LI406 \ Plot a pixel on row 1 of this character block LDA R \ Fetch the pixel byte from R and apply the colour in AND COL \ COL to it EOR (SC),Y \ Store A into screen memory at SC(1 0), using EOR STA (SC),Y \ logic so it merges with whatever is already on-screen DEX \ Decrement the counter in X BEQ LIEX6 \ If we have just reached the right end of the line, \ jump to LIEX6 to return from the subroutine DEY \ Decrement Y to step up along the y-axis LDA S \ Set S = S + P to update the slope error ADC P STA S BCS LI416 \ If the addition overflowed, jump to LI416 to move to \ the pixel in the row above, which returns us to LI407 \ below .LI407 \ Plot a pixel on row 0 of this character block LDA R \ Fetch the pixel byte from R and apply the colour in AND COL \ COL to it EOR (SC),Y \ Store A into screen memory at SC(1 0), using EOR STA (SC),Y \ logic so it merges with whatever is already on-screen DEX \ Decrement the counter in X BEQ LIEX6 \ If we have just reached the right end of the line, \ jump to LIEX6 to return from the subroutine DEC SC+1 \ We just reached the top of the character block, so DEC SC+1 \ decrement the high byte in SC(1 0) twice to point to LDY #7 \ the screen row above (as there are two pages per \ screen row) and set Y to point to the last row in the \ new character block LDA S \ Set S = S + P to update the slope error ADC P STA S BCS P%+5 \ If the addition didn't overflow, jump to LI400 to JMP LI400 \ continue plotting from row 7 of the new character \ block ASL R \ If we get here then the slope error just overflowed \ after plotting the pixel in LI407 above, so shift the \ single pixel in R to the left, so the next pixel we \ plot will be at the previous x-coordinate BCS P%+5 \ If the pixel didn't fall out of the left end of R JMP LI400 \ into the C flag, then jump to LI400 to continue \ plotting from row 7 of the new character block LDA #%00010001 \ Otherwise we need to move over to the next character STA R \ block to the left, so set a mask in R to the fourth \ pixel in the 4-pixel byte LDA SC \ Subtract 8 from SC, so SC(1 0) now points to the SBC #8 \ previous character along to the left STA SC BCS P%+4 \ If the subtraction underflowed, decrement the high DEC SC+1 \ byte in SC(1 0) to move to the previous page in \ screen memory CLC \ Clear the C flag so it doesn't affect the arithmetic \ below JMP LI400 \ Jump to LI400 to continue plotting from row 7 of the \ new character block .LIEX6 RTS \ Return from the subroutine .LI414 ASL R \ If we get here then the slope error just overflowed \ after plotting the pixel in LI440, so shift the single \ pixel in R to the left, so the next pixel we plot will \ be at the previous x-coordinate BCC LI405 \ If the pixel didn't fall out of the left end of R \ into the C flag, then jump to LI405 to plot the pixel \ on the next character row up LDA #%00010001 \ Otherwise we need to move over to the next character STA R \ block to the left, so set a mask in R to the fourth \ pixel in the 4-pixel byte LDA SC \ Subtract 8 from SC, so SC(1 0) now points to the SBC #8 \ previous character along to the left STA SC BCS P%+4 \ If the subtraction underflowed, decrement the high DEC SC+1 \ byte in SC(1 0) to move to the previous page in \ screen memory CLC \ Clear the C flag so it doesn't affect the arithmetic \ below BCC LI405 \ Jump to LI405 to rejoin the pixel plotting routine \ (this BCC is effectively a JMP as the C flag is clear) .LI415 ASL R \ If we get here then the slope error just overflowed \ after plotting the pixel in LI450, so shift the single \ pixel in R to the left, so the next pixel we plot will \ be at the previous x-coordinate BCC LI406 \ If the pixel didn't fall out of the left end of R \ into the C flag, then jump to LI406 to plot the pixel \ on the next character row up LDA #%00010001 \ Otherwise we need to move over to the next character STA R \ block to the left, so set a mask in R to the fourth \ pixel in the 4-pixel byte LDA SC \ Subtract 8 from SC, so SC(1 0) now points to the SBC #8 \ previous character along to the left STA SC BCS P%+4 \ If the subtraction underflowed, decrement the high DEC SC+1 \ byte in SC(1 0) to move to the previous page in \ screen memory CLC \ Clear the C flag so it doesn't affect the arithmetic \ below BCC LI406 \ Jump to LI406 to rejoin the pixel plotting routine \ (this BCC is effectively a JMP as the C flag is clear) .LI416 ASL R \ If we get here then the slope error just overflowed \ after plotting the pixel in LI460, so shift the single \ pixel in R to the left, so the next pixel we plot will \ be at the previous x-coordinate BCC LI407 \ If the pixel didn't fall out of the left end of R \ into the C flag, then jump to LI407 to plot the pixel \ on the next character row up LDA #%00010001 \ Otherwise we need to move over to the next character STA R \ block to the left, so set a mask in R to the fourth \ pixel in the 4-pixel byte LDA SC \ Subtract 8 from SC, so SC(1 0) now points to the SBC #8 \ previous character along to the left STA SC BCS P%+4 \ If the subtraction underflowed, decrement the high DEC SC+1 \ byte in SC(1 0) to move to the previous page in \ screen memory CLC \ Clear the C flag so it doesn't affect the arithmetic \ below JMP LI407 \ Jump to LI407 to rejoin the pixel plotting routineName: LOIN (Part 7 of 7) [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Drawing lines Summary: Draw a steep line going up and right or down and left Deep dive: Bresenham's line algorithmContext: See this subroutine in context in the source code Variations: See code variations for this subroutine in the different versions References: No direct references to this subroutine in this source file

This routine draws a line from (X1, Y1) to (X2, Y2). It has multiple stages. If we get here, then: * The line is going up and right (no swap) or down and left (swap) * X1 >= X2 and Y1 >= Y2 * Draw from (X1, Y1) at bottom left to (X2, Y2) at top right This routine looks complex, but that's because the loop that's used in the cassette and disc versions has been unrolled to speed it up. The algorithm is unchanged, it's just a lot longer.

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Label LI291 is local to this routine

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Label LI400 is local to this routine

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Label LI401 is local to this routine

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Label LI401S is local to this routine

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Label LI402 is local to this routine

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Label LI402S is local to this routine

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Label LI403 is local to this routine

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Label LI403S is local to this routine

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Label LI404 is local to this routine

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Label LI404S is local to this routine

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Label LI405 is local to this routine

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Label LI406 is local to this routine

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Label LI407 is local to this routine

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Label LI410 is local to this routine

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Label LI411 is local to this routine

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Label LI412 is local to this routine

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Label LI413 is local to this routine

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Label LI414 is local to this routine

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Label LI415 is local to this routine

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Label LI416 is local to this routine

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Label LIEX5 is local to this routine

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Label LIEX6 is local to this routine