.SLIDE JSR GRIDSET \ Call GRIDSET to populate the line coordinate tables at \ X1TB, Y1TB, X2TB and Y2TB (the TB tables) with the \ lines for the scroll text in (Y X) \ The following section does the following: \ \ * Clear the VB tables (X1VB, Y1VB, X2VB and Y2VB) \ \ * Call GRID with values of BALI dropping by 2 each \ time, from 254 to 252 to 250 ... to 6 to 4 to 2, \ to display the scroll text moving up the screen \ and into the distance \ \ * Clear the VB tables \ \ * Call GRID with BALI = 2 to erase the final set of \ lines from the screen JSR ZEVB \ Call ZEVB to zero-fill the Y1VB variable, which \ effectively clears all the VB tables as we only check \ the Y1VB table for zero values LDA #YELLOW \ Send a #SETCOL YELLOW command to the I/O processor to JSR DOCOL \ switch to colour 2, which is yellow LDA #254 \ Set BALI = 254 to act as a counter from 254 to 2, STA BALI \ decreasing by 2 each iteration, which represents the \ scrolling of the Star Wars scroll text up the screen \ and into the distance .SLL2 JSR GRID \ Call GRID to draw the Star Wars scroll text at the \ scroll position in BALI DEC BALI \ Set BALI = BALI - 2 to move the scroll text up the DEC BALI \ screen and into the distance BNE SLL2 \ Loop back to SLL2 until the loop counter is 0 (so GRID \ was last called with BALI = 2) .SL1 JSR ZEVB \ Call ZEVB to zero-fill the Y1VB variable, which \ effectively clears all the VB tables as we only check \ the Y1VB table for zero values LDA #2 \ Set BALI = 2 and fall into GRID below to redraw the STA BALI \ last set of scroll text, which erases it from the \ screen .GRID \ The GRID routine draws the Star Wars scroll text, with \ the value in BALI determining the scroll position of \ the perspective view, starting from 254 (not yet \ on-screen) and going down to 2 (the scroll has almost \ faded into the distance) \ \ The routine loops through the lines we just put in the \ TB tables, projects them into a Star Wars-like \ perspective scroll view in 3D space, then projects \ them onto the 2D screen, saving the resulting screen \ coordinates into the VB table. It then calls the \ GRIDEX routine to erase the lines from the previous \ call to GRID, and draw the new ones LDY #0 \ Set Y = 0, to act as an index into the TB tables, \ where we put the line coordinates above STY UPO \ Set UPO = 0, to act as an index into the UB tables STY INWK+8 \ Set z_sign = 0 STY INWK+1 \ Set x_hi = 0 STY INWK+4 \ Set y_hi = 0 DEY \ Decrement Y to 255, so the following loop starts with \ Y pointing to the first byte from the TB tables .GRIDL INY \ Increment Y to point to the next pair of line \ coordinates in the TB tables \ We now fetch the line's start point as 3D space \ coordinates, project it onto the Star Wars perspective \ scroll text, and project it again onto the 2D screen STZ INWK+7 \ Set z_hi = 0 LDA Y1TB,Y \ Set A to the y-coordinate of the line's start point, \ let's call it Y1 BNE P%+5 \ If A = 0, jump to GREX to draw the projected lines JMP GREX \ as we have now processed all of them SEC \ Set A = A - BALI SBC BALI \ = Y1 - BALI BCC GRIDL \ If Y1 < BALI, jump back to GRIDL to process the next \ line, as this one is not yet on-screen STA R \ Set R = Y1 - BALI ASL A \ Shift bits 6-7 of A into bits 0-1 of z_hi, so the C ROL INWK+7 \ flag is clear (as we set z_hi to 0 above) and z_hi is ASL A \ the high byte if A * 4 = (Y1 - BALI) * 4 is expressed ROL INWK+7 \ as a 16-bit value, i.e. ((Y1 - BALI) * 4) div 256 ADC #D \ Set (z_hi z_lo) = (z_hi z_lo) + #D STA INWK+6 \ \ first adding the low bytes LDA INWK+7 \ And then adding the high bytes, so we now have: ADC #0 \ STA INWK+7 \ (z_hi z_lo) = ((Y1 - BALI) * 4 div 256) + #D \ \ so because we set z_sign to 0 above, we have: \ \ (z_sign z_hi z_lo) = ((Y1 - BALI) * 4 div 256) + #D STZ S \ Set S = 0 LDA #%10000000 \ Set A to a negative sign byte STA P \ Set P = 128 JSR ADD \ Set (A X) = (A P) + (S R) \ = -128 + (0 R) \ = -128 + R \ = -128 + (Y1 - BALI) \ = Y1 - BALI - 128 STA INWK+5 \ Set (y_sign y_lo) = (A X) STX INWK+3 \ = Y1 - BALI - 128 \ \ so because we set y_hi to 0 above, we have: \ \ (y_sign y_hi y_lo) = Y1 - BALI - 128 LDA X1TB,Y \ Set A to the x-coordinate of the line's start point, \ let's call it X1. A is in the range 0 to 255, and we \ now need to move the coordinate to the left so it's in \ the range -128 to +128, but we need to put the result \ into (x_sign x_hi x_lo) which is a sign-magnitude \ number, so we can't just subtract 128, as that would \ give us a two's complement number EOR #%10000000 \ Flip the sign bit of A BPL GR2 \ If bit 7 is now clear, meaning it was previously set, \ then jump to GR2 as the original A was in the range \ 128 to 255, and we now have the correct result for \ A = A - 128, which is also |A - 128| as A was positive \ Otherwise bit 7 was previously clear, so A was in the \ range 0 to 127 and the EOR has shifted that up to 128 \ to 255, so we need to negate the number so that 128 \ becomes 0, 129 becomes 1 and so on EOR #%11111111 \ Negate the result in A by flipping all the bits and INA \ adding 1, i.e. using two's complement to negate it to \ set A to the magnitude part of the sign-magnitude \ number A - 128, i.e. |A - 128| .GR2 STA INWK \ Set x_lo = |A - 128| \ = |X1 - 128| LDA X1TB,Y \ Set x_sign to the opposite of bit 7 in X1, so it will EOR #%10000000 \ be positive if X1 > 127 and negative if X1 <= 127, so AND #%10000000 \ x_sign has the correct sign for X1 - 128: STA INWK+2 \ \ (x_sign x_lo) = X1 - 128 \ \ and because we set x_hi to 0 above, we have: \ \ (x_sign x_hi x_lo) = X1 - 128 STY YS \ Store Y, the index into the TB tables, in YS JSR PROJ \ Project the line's start coordinate onto the screen, \ returning: \ \ * K3(1 0) = the screen x-coordinate \ * K4(1 0) = the screen y-coordinate LDY YS \ Retrieve the value of Y from YS, so it once again \ contains the index into the TB tables LDA K3 \ Set XX15(1 0) = K3(1 0) STA XX15 LDA K3+1 STA XX15+1 LDA K4 \ Set XX15(3 2) = K4(1 0) STA XX15+2 LDA K4+1 STA XX15+3 \ We now fetch the line's end point as 3D space \ coordinates, project it onto the Star Wars perspective \ scroll text, and project it again onto the 2D screen STZ INWK+7 \ Set x_hi = 0 LDA Y2TB,Y \ Set A to Y2, the end point's y-coordinate from Y2TB SEC \ Set A = A - BALI SBC BALI \ = Y2 - BALI BCC GR6 \ If Y2 < BALI, jump down to GR6 to process the next \ line, as this one is not yet on-screen STA R \ Set R = Y2 - BALI ASL A \ Shift bits 6-7 of A into bits 0-1 of z_hi, so the C ROL INWK+7 \ flag is clear (as we set z_hi to 0 above) and z_hi is ASL A \ the high byte if A * 4 = (Y2 - BALI) * 4 is expressed ROL INWK+7 \ as a 16-bit value, i.e. ((Y2 - BALI) * 4) div 256 ADC #D \ Set (z_hi z_lo) = (z_hi z_lo) + #D STA INWK+6 \ \ first adding the low bytes LDA INWK+7 \ And then adding the high bytes, so we now have: ADC #0 \ STA INWK+7 \ (z_hi z_lo) = ((Y2 - BALI) * 4 div 256) + #D \ \ so because we set z_sign to 0 above, we have: \ \ (z_sign z_hi z_lo) = ((Y2 - BALI) * 4 div 256) + #D STZ S \ Set S = 0 LDA #%10000000 \ Set A to a negative sign byte STA P \ Set P = 128 JSR ADD \ Set (A X) = (A P) + (S R) \ = -128 + (0 R) \ = -128 + R \ = -128 + (Y2 - BALI) \ = Y2 - BALI - 128 STA INWK+5 \ Set (y_sign y_lo) = (A X) STX INWK+3 \ = Y2 - BALI - 128 \ \ so because we set y_hi to 0 above, we have: \ \ (y_sign y_hi y_lo) = Y2 - BALI - 128 LDA X2TB,Y \ Set A to the x-coordinate of the line's start point, \ let's call it X2. A is in the range 0 to 255, and we \ now need to move the coordinate to the left so it's in \ the range -128 to +128, but we need to put the result \ into (x_sign x_hi x_lo) which is a sign-magnitude \ number, so we can't just subtract 128, as that would \ give us a two's complement number EOR #%10000000 \ Flip the sign bit of A BPL GR3 \ If bit 7 is now clear, meaning it was previously set, \ then jump to GR3 as the original A was in the range \ 128 to 255, and we now have the correct result for \ A = A - 128, which is also |A - 128| as A was positive \ Otherwise bit 7 was previously clear, so A was in the \ range 0 to 127 and the EOR has shifted that up to 128 \ to 255, so we need to negate the number so that 128 \ becomes 0, 129 becomes 1 and so on EOR #%11111111 \ Negate the result in A by flipping all the bits and INA \ adding 1, i.e. using two's complement to negate it to \ set A to the magnitude part of the sign-magnitude \ number A - 128, i.e. |A - 128| .GR3 STA INWK \ Set x_lo = |A - 128| \ = |X2 - 128| LDA X2TB,Y \ Set x_sign to the opposite of bit 7 in X2, so it will EOR #%10000000 \ be positive if X2 > 127 and negative if X2 <= 127, so AND #%10000000 \ x_sign has the correct sign for X2 - 128: STA INWK+2 \ \ (x_sign x_lo) = X2 - 128 \ \ and because we set x_hi to 0 above, we have: \ \ (x_sign x_hi x_lo) = X2 - 128 JSR PROJ \ Project the line's end coordinate onto the screen, \ returning: \ \ * K3(1 0) = the screen x-coordinate \ * K4(1 0) = the screen y-coordinate LDA K3 \ Set XX15(5 4) = K3(1 0) STA XX15+4 LDA K3+1 STA XX15+5 LDA K4 \ Set XX12(1 0) = K4(1 0) STA XX12 LDA K4+1 STA XX12+1 \ We now have our line, projected onto the Star Wars \ perspective scroll text and then onto the screen, so \ we can clip it and store it in the UB tables for \ drawing later, once we have processed all the lines in \ the scroll text in the same way JSR LL145 \ Call LL145 to see if the new line segment needs to be \ clipped to fit on-screen, returning the clipped line's \ end-points in (X1, Y1) and (X2, Y2) LDY YS \ Retrieve the value of Y from YS, so it once again \ contains the index into the TB tables BCS GR6 \ If the C flag is set then the line is not visible on \ screen, so loop back to GRIDL via GR6 to process the \ next line to draw in the scroll text INC UPO \ Increment the table pointer in UPO to point to the \ next free slot in the UB tables LDX UPO \ Load the UPO table pointer into X LDA X1 \ Store the line coordinates (X1, Y1) and (X2, Y2) in STA X1UB,X \ the next free slot in the UB tables LDA Y1 STA Y1UB,X LDA X2 STA X2UB,X LDA Y2 STA Y2UB,X .GR6 JMP GRIDL \ Loop back to GRIDL to process the next line to draw \ in the scroll text .GREX \ If we get here then it's time to draw the lines we \ just projected, and remove any lines that are already \ on-screen \ \ The VB table holds the new lines to draw, while UB \ holds all their previous coordinates, i.e. the current \ lines on-screen, so drawing the VB lines draws the \ lines in their new positions, while drawing the UB \ lines erases the old lines from the screen LDY UPO \ Set Y to the the UPO table pointer, which contains the \ number of coordinates in the X1UB, Y1UB, X2UB and Y2UB \ tables (i.e. the number of lines we projected) BEQ GREX2 \ If UPO = 0 then there are no projected lines to draw, \ so jump to GREX2 to return from the subroutine \ We now loop through the projected lines, using Y as a \ loop counter that doubles as an index into the line \ coordinate tables \ \ First we draw the Y-th line from the VB table, if \ there is one, and then we draw the Y-th line from the \ UB table, before copying the Y-th VB line coordinates \ into the UB table (so the UB table contains the lines \ that are now on-screen) .GRL2 LDA Y1VB,Y \ If there is no Y-th line in the VB table, jump to GR4 BEQ GR4 STA Y1 \ Otherwise copy the Y-th line's coordinates from the VB LDA X1VB,Y \ table into (X1, Y1) and (X2, Y2) STA X1 LDA X2VB,Y STA X2 LDA Y2VB,Y STA Y2 JSR LOIN \ Draw the line from (X1, Y1) to (X2, Y2) .GR4 LDA X1UB,Y \ Copy the Y-th line's coordinates from the UB table STA X1 \ into both the VB table and into (X1, Y1) and (X2, Y2) STA X1VB,Y LDA Y1UB,Y STA Y1 STA Y1VB,Y LDA X2UB,Y STA X2 STA X2VB,Y LDA Y2UB,Y STA Y2 STA Y2VB,Y JSR LOIN \ Draw a line from (X1, Y1) to (X2, Y2) DEY \ Decrement the number of coordinates in Y BNE GRL2 \ Loop back to GRL2 to draw the next set of coordinates \ until we have done them all JSR LBFL \ Call LBFL to draw the line in the line buffer .GREX2 RTS \ Return from the subroutineName: SLIDE [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Demo Summary: Display a Star Wars scroll text Deep dive: The 6502 Second Processor demo modeContext: See this subroutine in context in the source code References: This subroutine is called as follows: * DEMON calls SLIDE

See the deep dive on "The 6502 Second Processor demo mode" for details of how the scroll text works. Arguments: (Y X) The contents of the scroll text to display

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Subroutine ADD (category: Maths (Arithmetic))

Calculate (A X) = (A P) + (S R)

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Configuration variable: D = 80

The distance from the camera (z-coordinate) of the bottom of the visible part of the Star Wars scroll text

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Subroutine DOCOL (category: Text)

Set the text colour by sending a #SETCOL command to the I/O processor

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Label GR2 is local to this routine

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Label GR3 is local to this routine

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Label GR4 is local to this routine

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Label GR6 is local to this routine

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Label GREX is local to this routine

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Label GREX2 is local to this routine

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Label GRID is local to this routine

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Label GRIDL is local to this routine

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Subroutine GRIDSET (category: Demo)

Populate the line coordinate tables with the lines for the scroll text

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Label GRL2 is local to this routine

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Subroutine LBFL (category: Drawing lines)

Draw the lines in the multi-segment line buffer by sending an OSWRCH 129 command to the I/O processor

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Subroutine LL145 (Part 1 of 4) (category: Drawing lines)

Clip line: Work out which end-points are on-screen, if any

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Subroutine LOIN (category: Drawing lines)

Add a line segment to the multi-segment line buffer

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Subroutine PROJ (category: Drawing ships)

Project the current ship onto the screen

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Label SLL2 is local to this routine

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Configuration variable: YELLOW = %00001111

Four mode 1 pixels of colour 1 (yellow)

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Subroutine ZEVB (category: Utility routines)

Zero-fill the Y1VB variable